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TITANIUM – Osteogenic (Anti Osteoporosis) Formula For Supreme Bone Health

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featuring: Acanthopanacis Cortex • Acer Palmatum • Achyranthes Bidentata Root • Alisma Orientalis(Sam.)Juzep. • Allium Sativum Linn • Amygdalin • Angelica Sinensis (Oliv.)Diels • Antrodia Camphorata • Apium Nodiflorum • Aralia Echinocau • Areca Nut • Artemisia Capillaris • Artemisiae Vulgaris Folium • Astragali Radix • Astragalus Membranaceus Bunge • Astragalus Variabills • Atractylodes Macrocephala Koidz. • Auricularia Auricula • Bambusa Vulgaris • Biloba • Black Olive Hydroalcoholic • Black Seed (Nigella Sativa) • Black Tea • Bushen Huayu • Bushen Huoxue • Camellia Sinensis • Cassia Tora L. Seed • Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae • Cheongawongagam • Chicory Roots • Chondroitin Sulfate • Cibotium Barometz • Cicer Arietinum • Cimicifuga • Cimicifuga Racemosa • Cinnamomum Cassia • Cinnamon • Cissus Quadrangularis • Cissus Quadrangularis Linn • Cissus Quadrangularis Linn. • Cistanche Deserticola Ma • Cistanches Herba • Citrus Aurantifolia L. Cv. Swingle Peel • Citrus Sinensis L. Cv. Liucheng Peel • Cordyceps Sinensis • Corni Fructus • Cornus Officinalis • Cornus Officinalis Sieb. Et Zucc. • Cuscuta Chinensis • Cuscutae Semen • Cynomorium Songaricum Rupr. • Dalbergia Sissoo • Daucus Carota • Daucus Carota Var. Sativa Hoffm. • Deer Antler • Dendrobium Officinale Orchid • Dendropanax Morbifera • Dioscorea Spongiosa • Dried Plum • Drynariae Rhizoma • Du–Zhong–Wan Water • Elaeagnus Angustifolia Fruit • Eleaegnus Angustifolia Fruit • Eleutherococcus Senticosus Bark • Epimedii Herba • Epimedii Sagittatum • Epimedium • Epimedium Brevicornum Maxim • Eruca Sativa Leaves • Eucommia Leaf • Eucommia Ulmoides Leaf • Eurycoma Longifolia • Forsythiae Fructus • Gentiana Macrophylla Pall (Gentianaceae) • Ginkgo Biloba • Ginseng • Greek Thymus Vulgaris • Green Tea • Green Tomato • Hawthorn • Herba Epimedii/Fructus Ligustri Lucidi • Humulus Lupulus L. • Isopropanolic • Kudzu • Laminaria Japonica Aresch. • Lannea Acida A. Rich • Lepidium Meyenii Walp • Loquat • Lotus Seed And Leaves • Lycii Folium S • Lycii Fructus • Lycii Radicis Cortex • Lycium Barbarum • Magnoliae Flos • Marine Algae • Melon S • Milk Thistle • Monascus • Morinda Citrifolia L. Leaf • Morinda Officinalis How • Mornidae Radix S • Morus Alba • Mulberry • Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn • Notopterygium Incisum Ting Ex Ht Chang • Olive Oil • Oryza Sativa L. Japonica • Oyster • Panax Ginseng • Phyllostachys Edulis • Plastrum Testudinis • Polygonatum Sibiricum • Pomegranate Peel • Poncirus Trifoliata • Poria Cocos(Schw.)Wolf • Psidium Guajava Fruit • Psoralea Corylifolia • Psoralea Corylifolia Linn. • Pu-Erh Tea • Pueraria Lobata • Pumpkin Seed • Punica Granatum • Qianggu Soft • Quassinoid-Rich Eurycoma Longifolia • Radix Astragali • Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Unpeeled) • Red Yeast Rice • Rehmannia Glutinosa (Gaetn.) Libosch. Ex Fisch. Et Mey. • Rehmanniae Radix Preparata • Rhizoma Drynariae • Rosae Laevigatae • Rubiacordifoliain Ovariectomized • Rubus Coreanus S • Ruscus Aculeatus • Salvadora Persica Sticks • Salvia Miltiorrhiza • Sambucus Williamsii Hance • Sargassum Tenerrimum Algae • Saururus Chinensis • Schisandra Chinensis(Turcz.)Baill • Sea Cucumber • Siberian Ginseng • Sipatah-Patah • Soybean Sprouts • Spinacia Oleracea L. • Taiwanofungus Camphoratus • Thearubigins • Titrated Horsetail • Trachyrhamphus Swrratus • Tribulus Terrestris • Trifolium Medium L. • Triticum Aestivum Aqueous • Vigna Angularis • Yukmi-Jihwang-Tang-Jahage S • Yupingfeng • Zuoguiwan •

The effects of Flavonoids on bone


Osteoporosis and fragility fractures are a growing problem for our aging population with around 1 in 2 women and 1 in 5 men suffering from an osteoporotic fracture during their lifetime. Although there are established factors that can reduce the risk of fracture such as maintaining physical activity , ceasing smoking, and adequate vitamin D status, and intakes of calcium; dietary mechanisms are less well established. The relevance of the flavonoid group of bioactive compounds found in fruits and vegetables has been less investigated. Two human epidemiologic studies in women found positive associations between total dietary flavonoid intake and bone mineral density. Flavonoids may protect against bone loss by upregulating signaling pathways that promote osteoblast function, by reducing the effects of oxidative stress or chronic low-grade inflammation. The limitations of the existing research are explored in the manuscript and it is concluded that further research is needed, in this promising area.


Screening of flavonoids for effective osteoclastogenesis ogenesis suppression


Flavonoids are natural compounds derived from plants and some of them have been shown to inhibit osteoclastogenesis formation, implicating their potential use for the treatment of Osteoporosis. Conventionally, the screening of antiosteoclastic agents is a tedious process that requires visual counting of the number of osteoclasts produced. The purpose of this study was to establish an easier and faster method for screening the antiosteoclastogenic flavonoids by using an enzyme assay. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) is a marker enzyme of the osteoclastogenesis . Results obtained demonstrated that cellular TRAP activity tended to correlate with the number of osteoclasts formed. However, the secreted TRAP activity was actually responsible for the resorption activities of the functional osteoclasts.

Consequently, the effectiveness of antiosteoclastogenic agents was screened for by assessing their inhibition on receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced TRAP secretion. The half-inhibitory concentrations of flavonoids on TRAP secretion were employed as indices to compare the effectiveness of various flavonoids. The effective flavonoids also exhibited similar inhibitory potencies in the pit-formation analysis. This protocol provides a rapid analysis to screen for effective antiosteoclastogenic agents.


Flavonoids in bone Erosive Diseases: Perspectives in Osteoporosis treatment


Imbalance of bone homeostasis, with excessive bone resorption compared with bone formation, leads to the development of progressive osteopenia leading to lower bone resistance to load, with consequent pain and functional limitations. Phytochemicals with therapeutic and preventive effects against bone resorption have recently received increasing attention since they are potentially more suitable for long-term use than traditional therapeutic chemical compounds. In this systematic review of the literature of the past 5 years, comprehensive information is provided on flavonoids with potential antiresorption and pro-osteogenic effects . It aims to highlight the molecular mechanisms of these molecules, often epigenetic, and their possible pharmacological use, which is of great importance for the prevention and treatment of Osteoporosis (OP).


Tea flavonoids for bone health: from animals to humans


Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a deterioration of bone mass and bone quality that predisposes an individual to a higher risk of fragility fractures . Emerging evidence has shown that the risk for low bone mass and Osteoporosis-related fractures can be reduced by nutritional approaches aiming to improve bone microstructure, bone mineral density, and strength. Tea and its flavonoids, especially those of black tea and green tea, have been suggested to protect against bone loss and to reduce risk of fracture, due to tea‘s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Based on the results of animal studies, moderate intake of tea has shown to benefit bone health as shown by mitigation of bone loss and microstructural deterioration as well as improvement of bone strength and quality. Epidemiological studies have reported positive, insignificant, and negative impacts on bone mineral density at multiple skeletal sites and risk of fracture in humans with habitual tea consumption. There are limited human clinical trials that objectively and quantitatively assessed tea consumption and bone efficacy using validated outcome measures in a population at high risk for Osteoporosis, along with safety monitoring approach.

This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of laboratory animal research, epidemiological observational studies, and clinical trials assessing the skeletal effects of tea and its active flavonoids, along with discussion of relevant future directions in translational research.


Osteoporosis and the role of diet.


Osteoporosis, a common problem of older women in developed countries, is characterised by low bone mineral density or low bone mineral content, both measures of bone quantity. However, with Osteoporosis there is also a loss of bone micro-architecture–that is, a loss of bone quality. Dietary factors thought to be important in maintaining bone quantity include calcium, vitamin D, protein and salt. Trace minerals may be important in maintaining bone quality through their role as metallo-enzymes in the synthesis of collagen and other proteins that form the structure of bone. Other substances like flavonoids may also have a role in preventing Osteoporosis.


The role of polyphenols on bone metabolism in Osteoporosis


Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease of bone mass loss and deterioration of the bone structure leading to increased susceptibility to fracture , generally associated with risk factors that include hormonal imbalance, increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation.

Nutritional factors and certain lifestyle reduce the risks of occurrence of Osteoporosis and are part of a number of national and international prevention recommendations. Recent reports based on molecular mechanisms of dietary polyphenols have highlighted the benefits in their prevention and treatment of Osteoporosis. Polyphenols can protect bone health through reduction of oxidative stress because they act as antioxidants, reduction of inflammation by proinflammatory signaling, modulation of osteoblastogenesis , osteoclastogenesis, and osteoimmunological action.

This review reports about some important bioactive polyphenol sources and describes their action against Osteoporosis based on in vitro and in vivo studies.


Polyphenol-Rich Foods and Osteoporosis


Background: Osteoporosis is a metabolic disease affecting the bone mineral density and thus compromise the strength of the bones. Disease prevention through diet is the objective of the study and discussion. Among the several nutrients investigated, the intake of phenols seems to influence bone mineral density by acting as free radical scavengers, preventing oxidation-induced damage to bone cells . In addition, the growing understanding of the bone remodelling process supports the theory that inflammation significantly contributes to the etiopathogenesis of Osteoporosis.

Methods: To provide an overview of current evidence on polyphenol-rich foods and Osteoporosis prevention we made a comprehensive review of the literature focusing on the state of art of the topic.

Results: Some polyphenol-rich foods, including olive oil, fruit and vegetable, tea and soy, seem to be beneficial for preventing Osteoporosis disease and its progression. The mechanism is still partly unknown and may involve different pathways which include inflammation and other disease reactions.

Conclusions: However, further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms regulating the molecular interaction between Osteoporosis incidence and progression and polyphenol-rich foods. The current evidence suggests that dietary intervention with polyphenol rich foods may be useful to prevent incidence and progression of this condition.


Tea Polyphenols Inhibit Rat Osteoclast Formation and Differentiation


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in degeneration of the matrix associated with bone and cartilage . Regulation of osteoclastogenesis activity is essential in the treatment of bone disease, including Osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Polyphenols in green tea, particularly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), inhibit MMPs expression and activity . However, the effects of the black tea polyphenol, theaflavin-3,3′-digallate (TFDG), on osteoclastogenesis and MMP activity are unknown.

Therefore, we examined whether TFDG and EGCG affect MMP activity and osteoclastogenesis formation and differentiation in vitro. TFDG or EGCG (10 and 100 μM) was added to cultures of rat osteoclastogenesis precursors cells and mature osteoclasts. Numbers of multinucleated osteoclasts and actin rings decreased in polyphenol-treated cultures relative to control cultures. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were lower in TFDG- and EGCG-treated rat osteoclastogenesis precursor cells than in control cultures. MMP-9 mRNA levels declined significantly in TFDG-treated osteoclasts in comparison to control osteoclasts. TFDG and EGCG inhibited the formation and differentiation of osteoclasts via inhibition of MMPs. TFDG may suppress actin ring formation more effectively than EGCG. Thus, TFDG and EGCG may be suitable agents or lead compounds for the treatment of bone resorption diseases.


Putative effects of Nutritive Polyphenols on bone Metabolism In Vivo—Evidence from Human Studies


For the prevention and treatment of bone loss related diseases, focus has been put on naturally derived substances such as polyphenols. Based on human intervention studies, this review gives an overview of the effects of dietary significant polyphenols (flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and stilbenes) on bone turnover. Literature research was conducted using PubMed database and articles published between 01/01/2008 and 31/12/2018 were included (last entry: 19/02/2019). Randomized controlled trials using oral polyphenol supplementation, either of isolated polyphenols or polyphenols-rich foods with healthy subjects or study populations with bone disorders were enclosed.

Twenty articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and the average study quality (mean Jadad score: 4.5) was above the pre-defined cut-off of 3.0. Evidence from these studies does not allow an explicit conclusion regarding the effects of dietary important polyphenols on bone mineral density and bone turnover markers. Differences in study population, habitual diet, lifestyle factors, applied polyphenols, used doses, and polyphenol bioavailability complicate the comparison of study outcomes.


Modulatory effects of Plant Polyphenols on bone Remodeling: A Prospective View From the Bench to Bedside


During the past, a more comprehensive knowledge of mechanisms implicated in bone resorption processes has driven researchers to develop a compound library of many small molecules that specifically interfere with the genesis of osteoclastogenesis precursors cells ]. Natural compounds that suppress osteoclastogenesis commitment may have therapeutic value in treating pathologies associated with bone resorption like Osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, bone metastasis, and periodontal disease. The present review is focused on the current knowledge on the polyphenols derived from plants that could be efficacious in suppressing osteoclastogenesis differentiation and bone resorption.


Dietary Polyphenols, Berries, and Age-Related bone Loss: A Review Based on Human, Animal, and Cell Studies


Bone loss during aging has become an increasing public health concern as average life expectancy has increased. One of the most prevalent forms of age-related bone disease today is Osteoporosis in which the body slows down bone formation and existing bone is increasingly being resorbed by the body to maintain the calcium balance. Some causes of this bone loss can be attributed to dysregulation of osteoblast and osteoclastogenesis activity mediated by increased oxidative stress through the aging process. Due to certain serious adverse effects of the currently available therapeutic agents that limit their efficacy, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has garnered interest as a natural means for the prevention of this debilitating disease. Natural antioxidant supplementation, a type of CAM, has been researched to aid in reducing bone loss caused by oxidative stress.

Naturally occurring polyphenols, such as anthocyanins rich in berries, are known to have anti-oxidative properties. Several studies have been reviewed to determine the impact polyphenol intake—particularly that of berries—has on bone health. Studies reveal a positive association of high berry intake and higher bone mass, implicating berries as possible inexpensive alternatives in reducing the risk of age related bone loss.


When nutrition interacts with osteoblast function: molecular mechanisms of polyphenols


Recent research has provided insights into dietary components that may optimise bone health and stimulate bone formation. Fruit and vegetable intake, as well as grains and other plant-derived food, have been linked to decreased risk of major chronic diseases including Osteoporosis. This effect has been partially attributed to the polyphenols found in these foods. Thus, it has been suggested that these compounds may provide desirable bone health benefits through an action on bone cell metabolism. The present review will focus on how some polyphenols can modulate osteoblast function and reports which cellular signalling pathways are potentially implicated.

However, to date, despite numerous investigations, few studies have provided clear evidence that phenolic compounds can act on osteoblasts . Polyphenols cited in the present review seem to be able to modulate the expression of transcription factors such as runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and Osterix, NF-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1). It appears that polyphenols may act on cellular signalling such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), oestrogen receptor and osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (OPG/RANKL) and thus may affect osteoblast functions. However, it is also important to take in account the possible interaction of these compounds on osteoclastogenesis metabolism to better understand the positive correlation reported between the consumption of fruit and vegetables and bone mass.


Acanthopanacis Cortex


therapeutic effects of Cortex acanthopanacis Aqueous Extract on bone Metabolism of Ovariectomized Rats


The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of aqueous extract from Cortex acanthopanacis (CAE) on osteoporosis rats induced by ovariectomy (OVX) using aqueous extract from Folium Epimedii (FEE) as positive control agent. Three-month-old female rats that underwent OVX were treated with CAE. After 12 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD) and indices of bone histomorphometry of tibia were measured. Levels of protein and mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in tibia were evaluated. In addition, the serum concentrations of osteocalcin (OC), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), calcitonin (CT), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined.

Administration of CAE significantly prevented OVX-induced rats from gain of the body weight. treatment with CAE increased bone mass remarkably and showed a significant inhibitory effect on bone resorption by downregulating significantly the expression of RANKL in tibia of OVX rats. Meanwhile, treatment of CAE significantly reduced serum level of IL-1β and increased level of CT in OVX rats. This suggests that CAE has the potential to be used as an alternative therapeutic agent for postmenopausal osteoporosis.



Acer Palmatum


Antiosteoporotic effects Of Acer Palmatum On Osteoclastogenesis And osteoblastogenesis


osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease that causes bone weakness and fragility. Consuming bone-beneficial nutrients through diet can prevent and treat osteoporosis. Acer palmatum (Japanese maple) leaves are used to make tea, but there have been few reports of their health benefits, especially regarding bone homeostasis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of A. palmatum hot water extract (APE) on osteoclastogenesis ogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in cultured cells . APE suppressed the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated osteoclasts in RANKL induced RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, APE facilitated Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition during osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was performed to investigate the effective components of APE, and four flavonoids orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin were identified with the LC-MS analysis. treatment with fractionated APE suppressed osteoclastogenesis ogenesis and facilitated osteoblastogenesis in cultured cells. These findings suggest that APE contains antiosteoporotic compounds; thus, APE might have health promoting effects that help prevent osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis ogenesis and facilitating osteoblastogenesis.



Achyranthes Bidentata Root


Achyranthes Bidentata Root prevent Ovx-Induced osteoporosis In Rats


Aim: The objective of the present study was to systematically investigate the effects of Achyranthes bidentata root extract (ABRE) on postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Materials and methods: Eighty 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and randomly assigned into sham-operated group (SHAM) and five ovariectomy (OVX) subgroups, i.e. OVX with vehicle (OVX); OVX with 17 β-ethinylestradiol (E(2), 25 μg/kg/day); OVX with ABRE of graded doses (100, 300, or 500 mg/kg/day). Daily oral administration of ABRE or E(2) started on week 4 after OVX for 16 weeks. bone mass, bone turnover and strength were analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), biochemical markers and three-point bending test. The trabecular bone microarchitecture was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (μCT).

Results: 16 weeks treatment of ABRE slowed down the body weight gain and prevented the loss of bone mass induced by the OVX. The prevention effect on bone loss was due to altering the rate of bone remodeling, which could be inferred from the decreased level of bone turnover markers, such as serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD). The changes of urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion provided the same evidence. The treatment could also enhance the bone strength and prevent the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture.

Conclusions: We conclude that 16 weeks of ABRE treatment improve bone biomechanical quality through modifications of bone mineral density (BMD), and trabecular microarchitecture without hyperplastic effect on uterus, and it might be a potential alternative medicine for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.



Alisma orientalis(Sam.)Juzep.


The effects of Liuwei Dihuang on canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in osteoporosis


Ethnopharmacological relevance: The Liuwei Dihuang (LWDH), a wellknown classic traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of six herbs including Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. (family: Scrophulariaceae), Cornus officinalis Sieb. (family: Cornaceae), Dioscorea opposite Thunb. (family: Dioscoreaceae), Alisma orientale (G. Samuelsson) Juz (family: Alismataceae), Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf (family: Polyporaceae) and Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (family: Paeoniaceae). It has been used clinically in the treatment of many types of diseases with signs of deficiency of Yin in the kidneys for more than 1000 years in China. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of LWDH on canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in osteoporosis.

Materials and methods: Osteoporosis model was induced by ovariectomy (OVX) in 8-week-old female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. After 12 weeks of treatment with LWDH by intragastric administration, the rats were put to death in batch. The changes of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (BGP) and estradiol (E2) in serum were determined, bone mineral density (BMD) and histomorphology of right femur were observed, biomechanics of lumbar vertebra were measured, and the expression of Lrp-5, β-catenin, Runx2, Osx involving the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were detected by RT-PCR. In addition, osteoblasts isolated from neonatal rat calvariae were used in this study to investigate the effects of LWDH on the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Cell proliferation and differentiation were observed by the MTT test, ALP activity and calcified nodules. The expression of Lrp-5, β-catenin, Runx2, Osx mRNA of cells were also detected. All the data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0.

Results: Twelve weeks of treatment with LWDH could significantly decrease the level of ALP and BGP in serum, increase the BMD of femurs, and improve the biomechanical capabililty of vertebral body in maximum loading and elastic modulus. Concerning histomorphology, we found ordered arrangement of trabeculae, slightly thinning of trabeculae and none obvious slight fractures in femurs after twelve weeks of treatment with LWDH. In osteoblast , serum containing LWDH elicited significantly increase in cell viability (at day 6), alkaline phosphatase activity (at days 2, 4 and 6) and amount of calcified nodules. The expression of Lrp-5, β-catenin, Runx2 and Osx involved in the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were significantly up-regulated in the presence of LWDH both in vivo and in vitro experiment.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that Liuwei Dihuang could alleviate osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy, in part, through up-regulation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway of osteoblast.


Allium Sativum Linn


prevention Of bone Loss By Oil Of Garlic (Allium Sativum Linn.) In An Ovariectomized Rat Model Of osteoporosis


The effects of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on different primary and secondary osteoporotic marker changes were tested in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. Experiments were performed on three different rat models: sham-operated control, ovariectomized and ovariectomized supplemented with garlic oil. In ovariectomized group, there has been a significant increase in different relative organ weights compared to sham-operated control, while the uterine weight was found to be decreased. Supplementation with oil extract of garlic could effectively reverse these changes.

Also low bone densities that developed in the ovariectomized group were significantly recovered in the garlic oil supplemented group. In our study, the development of high rate of bone turnover and osteoporosis in the ovariectomized animals were confirmed by significant alteration of serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity, urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, hydroxyproline and urinary calcium to creatinine ratio, when compared with the sham-operated control group. Garlic oil extract supplementation, apart from its unique influence in lowering blood cholesterol, could also prevent ovariectomy-induced rise in all the above-mentioned marker changes. The results of this study emphasize that oil extract of garlic possibly has a positive role in suppressing ovariectomy-induced bone resorption.



Amygdalin


Amygdalin promotes fracture healing through TGF-β/Smad Signaling in mesenchymal stem cells


chondrogenesis and subsequent osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs ) and angiogenesis at injured sites are crucial for bone fracture healing. Amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside compound derived from bitter apricot kernel, has been reported to inhibit IL-1β-induced chondrocyte degeneration and to stimulate blood circulation , suggesting a promising role of amygdalin in fracture healing. In this study, tibial fractures in C57BL/6 mice were treated with amygdalin. fracture calluses were then harvested and subjected to radiographic, histological, and biomechanical testing, as well as angiography and gene expression analyses to evaluate fracture healing.

The results showed that amygdalin treatment promoted bone fracture healing. Further experiments using MSC-specific transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β receptor 2 conditional knockout (KO) mice (Tgfbr2Gli1-Cre) and C3H10 T1/2 murine mesenchymal progenitor cells showed that this effect was mediated through TGF-β/Smad signaling. We conclude that amygdalin could be used as an alternative treatment for bone fractures.



Angelica sinensis (Oliv.)Diels


Anti-Osteoporotic effects of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels Extract on Ovariectomized Rats and Its Oral Toxicity in Rats


Angelica sinensis root is one of the herbs most commonly used in China; it is also often included in dietary supplements for menopause in Europe and North America. In the present study, we examined the anti-osteoporotic effects of A. sinensis extract in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis as well as toxicity of the extract after repeated oral administration. The OVX rats were treated with 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg i.p. once daily) or A. sinensis extract (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, p.o. once daily) for four weeks. The bone (femur) mineral density (BMD) of rats treated with the extract (300 mg/kg) was significantly higher than that of the OVX-control, reaching BMD of the estradiol group. Markers of bone turnover in osteoporosis , serum alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I C-telopeptide and osteocalcin, were significantly decreased in the extract group.

The body and uterus weight and serum estradiol concentration were not affected, and no treatment -related toxicity was observed during extract administration in rats. The results obtained indicate that A. sinensis extract can prevent the OVX-induced bone loss in rats via estrogen-independent mechanism.



Antrodia camphorata


osteoporosis recovery by Antrodia camphorata alcohol s through bone regeneration in SAMP8 mice


Antrodia camphorata has previously demonstrated the efficacy in treating cancer and anti-inflammation. In this study, we are the first to evaluate Antrodia camphorata alcohol extract (ACAE) for osteoporosis recovery in vitro with preosteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) and in vivo with an osteoporosis mouse model established in our previous studies, ovariectomized senescence accelerated mice (OVX-SAMP8). Our results demonstrated that ACAE treatment was slightly cytotoxic to preosteoblast at 25 μg/mL, by which the osteogenic gene expression (RUNX2, OPN, and OCN) was significantly upregulated with an increased ratio of OPG to RANKL, indicating maintenance of the bone matrix through inhibition of osteoclastogenesisic pathway. Additionally, evaluation by Alizarin Red S staining showed increased mineralization in ACAE-treated preosteoblasts.

For in vivo study, our results indicated that ACAE inhibits bone loss and significantly increases percentage bone volume, trabecular bone number, and bone mineral density in OVX-SAMP8 mice treated with ACAE. Collectively, in vitro and in vivo results showed that ACAE could promote osteogenesis and prevent bone loss and should be considered an evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine for osteoporosis therapy through the maintenance of bone health.



Apium Nodiflorum


The effect of Apium Nodiflorum in Experimental osteoporosis


treatment of osteoporosis remains a therapeutic challenge. The effect of Apium Nodiflorum extract on development of experimental osteoporosis, pain thresholds and carrageenan-induced inflammation has been studied in ovariectomized osteoporotic Wistar rats. After osteoporosis verification rats were randomized and received vehicle only, HPLC-standardized Apium extract (equal to 2.4 mg/kg Quercetin) or Genistein (2.5 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. To verify the effect of Apium on the development of osteoporosis, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), bone histology and plasma levels of IL-6 and RANKL were measured 6 months after ovariectomy and 8 weeks after treatment with Apium extract or Genistein as comparator.

Inflammatory hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar injection of 1% Carrageenan. Apium extract and Genistein impeded the development of osteoporosis (significant differences were shown for BMC and BMD levels in drug vs. vehicle treated rats) and improved bone histology and histological score. Apium and Genistein decreased IL-6 level. Both treatments alleviate d mechanical hyperalgesia, decreased exudative reaction and lowered inflammatory pain threshold. The results suggested that Apium extract could be an alternative therapy for post-menopausal osteoporosis.


Aralia Echinocau


[Influence of aqueous extract of Aralia echinocaulis Hand.-Mazz on the expression of fracture healing -related factor receptors]


Objective: To investigate the influence of aqueous extract of Aralia echinocaulis Hand.-Mazz on the expression of fracture healing-ralated factor receptors.

Methods: Single factor model was set up in SD rat. Selecting 14 and 28 days in the experiment. Immunohistochemistry was employed to determine the expression of Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2 ), Fms-like tyrosine kinase (Flt-1) and Fetal licer kinase (Flk-1) at 14 and 28 days after model establishing.

Results: The expression of Flt-1 and Flk-1 at 14 days (the latter was more remarkable) were obviously promoted in High dose group of aqueous extract of Aralia echinocaulis Hand-Mazz, and higher than that in normal group and model group. The expression of FGFR2 in the high dose group of Aralia echinocaulis Hand -Mazz was also promoted visibility, close to that in the compare group (traditional Chinese medicine), but higher than than in the model group. There was no significant difference among them. At 28 days, the expression of FGFR2 , Flt-1 and Flk-1 in all groups decreased except normal group, and got higher expression in model groups than each control groups.

Conclusion: Aqueous extract of Aralia echinocaulis Hand.-Mazz can promote angiogenesis in fracture healing, improve the activity and aggregation of Fibroblasts, osteoblasts and chondrocytes . It also helps to quicken ossification in the cartilage and promote fracture healing.


Areca Nut


Areca Nut Protects Against Ovariectomy-Induced osteoporosis In Mice


Estrogen deficiency increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a crucial pathogenic factor for osteoporosis. Areca nuts are rich in phenolics, which have high antioxidant activity . In the present study, an ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis mouse model was used to investigate the protective effects of areca nut extract (ANE) on bone loss and related processes. A total of 24 8-week-old female mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=8 per group): I Sham-operated control; II, bilateral OVX; and III, bilateral OVX + ANE. Group III were treated orally with ANE at a single dose of 300 mg/kg body weight daily for 6 months. ANE supplementation for 6 months improved trabecular bone microarchitecture and significantly increased bone mineral density in the distal femur (P<0.05) compared with Group II. Furthermore, serum levels of the osteoclastogenesis differentiation-inducing factors, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin were significantly increased and decreased , respectively (both P<0.05), in OVX mice and these effects were significantly inhibited by ANE treatment (both P<0.05).

ANE supplementation also resulted in significantly decreased serum hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels compared with Group II, while the levels of glutathione and catalase activity were significantly increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The current study indicated that the protective effects of ANE against bone loss were mediated, at least in part, via inhibition of the release of ROS and bone resorption. These results suggested that ANE could have therapeutic value in the treatment of osteoporosis.



Artemisia Capillaris


In Vitro And In Vivo protective effect Of Artemisia Capillaris On osteoporosis Through Regulation Of Osteoclast Differentiation And bone resorption activity


Bone is dynamic tissue that is constantly destroyed or resorbed by osteoclasts and then replaced by osteoblasts in physiological process referred to as bone remodeling. In this study, the protective effect of Artemisia capillaris extract (ACE) on osteoporosis was investigated using RANKL‐induced osteoclasts and ovariectomized rats. In animal study, The total of sixty 8 week‐old female Spraque‐Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham‐operated group and four ovariectomized (OVA) groups: OVA, OVA + 17β‐estradiol (E2, 50 μg/kg/day) and OVA + ACE (125 or 250 mg/kg/day). Daily oral administration of E2 or ACE began 3 weeks after surgery and lasted for 12 weeks. ACE inhibited the decrease in total BMD and BMC of the femur induced by OVA, which was accompanied by a significant reduction in bone remodeling. The bone turnover markers such as BALP, PICP, OPG, RANKL, TRAP, and ICTP were regulated by ACE treatment.

In addition, the underlying mechanism of anti‐osteoporotic effect of ACE was studied using scoparone, its major bioactive compound. The TRAP and bone resorption activity were dose‐dependently by scoparone in RANKL‐induced osteoclastogenesis differentiation. The suppressive effect of scoparone on RANKL‐induced osteoclastogenesis differentiation was executed by down‐regulating ROS production through NADPH oxidase 1 and mitochondria and by scavenging generated ROS. In conclusion, the protective of ACE on osteoporosis can be accomplished by attenuating RANKL‐induced osteoclastogenesis differentiation and bone resorption activity. These results indicate that ACE may utilized as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of bone metabolism‐related diseases.



Artemisiae Vulgaris Folium


effects Of Herbal-Acupuncture With Artemisiae Vulgaris Folium At Ki_ {10} $($ Eumgok $) On osteoporosis In Ovariectomized Mice


Objectives & Methods: The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of herbal-acupuncture with extract(AaH-HA) at () on osteoporosis in ovariectomized(OVX) ddy mice. We carried out several experimental items to analyze the changes in body weight, urine, weight, uterus index, tibial length, the ash bone weight, tibial BMD, serum ALP, serum osteocalcin, serum Ca, and the levels of Ca, P, Ca/P ratio in tibia, and we performed histological and histomorphological analysis as well.

Results: 1. Herbal-acupuncture with AaH-HA at significantly inhibited the reduction phosphorus level in serum in ovariectomized mice. 2. Herbal-acupuncture with AaH-HA at significantly inhibited the reduction creatinine level in serum in ovariectomized mice. 3. Herbal-acupuncture with AaH-HA at significantly inhibited the increase of tibial osteoclastogenesis cells in ovariectomized mice. 4. Herbal-acupuncture with AaH-HA at significantly inhibited the reduction of TBV(trabecular bone volume) and TBT(trabecular bone thickness) in ovariectomized mice. 5. Herbal-acupuncture with AaH-HA at significantly inhibited the overgrowth of tibial growth plate length(GPL) in ovariectomized mice.

Conclusions: In conclusion, our study suggested that Herbal-acupuncturing with AaH-HA at can be effective treatment for osteoporosis.



Astragali Radix


Inhibitory effect of Astragalus polysaccharide on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats by regulating FoxO3a /Wnt signaling pathway


Purpose: To investigate inhibitory effect of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats by regulating FoxO3a/Wnt2 signaling pathway.

Methods: Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) animal model was developed by excising the bilateral ovaries of rats. The model rats were administered with APS (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg) by intragastric administration once daily for 12 weeks. bone density, bone metabolism index and oxidative stress index were measured in all groups. Furthermore, the regulation of APS of FoxO3a / Wnt2 signaling pathway was observed.

Results: APS has an estrogen-like effect , which can increase bone mass, lower serum ALP and BGP values, increase blood calcium content, and increase bone density of the femur and vertebrae in rats. At the same time, APS can increase the bone mineral content of the femur, increase the maximum stress , maximum load and elastic modulus of the ovariectomized rats, improve oxidative stress in rats by increasing the gene expression of β-catenin and Wnt2 mRNA and inhibiting the gene expression of FoxO3a mRNA.

Conclusion: Astragalus polysaccharide can effectively alleviate oxidative stress -mediated osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats, which may be related to its regulation of FoxO3a/Wnt2/β-catenin pathway.



Astragalus Membranaceus Bunge


Anti-osteoporosis activity Of Astragalus Membranaceus Bunge In Experimental Rats


Purpose: To investigate the anti-osteoporosis effect of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge. extract (AMBE) in experimental rats. Method: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: control group, ovariectomy (OVX) with vehicle group, OVX with 17β-estradiol (E2, 25 µg/kg/day) group, and OVX with AMBE doses (60, 120 and 240 mg/kg/day) groups. Daily oral administration of AMBE or E2 was started 4 weeks after OVX and lasted for 16 weeks. The bone mineral density (BMD) of L4 vertebrae and right femurs was evaluated. The length of each femur was measured with a micrometer, and the center of diaphysis was determined. Three representative L4 vertebrae were selected to evaluate trabecular microarchitecture. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urinary calcium (U-Ca), urinary phosphorus (U-P), urinary creatinine (Cr) and osteocalcin (OC) levels were measured. Results: AMBE dose-dependently inhibited the bone mineral density (BMD) reduction of L4 vertebrae (0.27 ± 0.03 g/cm², p < 0.05) and femurs (0.23 ± 0.03 g/cm², p < 0.05) caused by OVX and prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture (p < 0.05), which were accompanied by a significant decrease in skeletal remodeling (p < 0.05) as evidenced by the lower levels of bone turnover markers.

A higher dosage of AMBE treatment (240 mg/kg/day) increased U-Ca/Cr (0.27 ± 0.03 mmol/mmol), ALP (137.23 ± 16.72 U/L), U-P/Cr (4.18 ± 0.27 mmol/mmol) and OC (8.47 ± 0.26 mmol/L) levels (both p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that AMBE prevents OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats.



Astragalus Variabills


effects of the mixture of Epimediem sagittatum flavone,Rhizoma Drynariae flavone and the enthanol extract of Astragalus variabills Bunge on osteoporosis mice induced by retinoic acid


The effect of the mixture composed of the flavone of [Epimediem sagittatum and Rhizoma Drynariae] and the enthanol extract of Astragalus variabills Bunge onosteoporosis wasstudied by feeding the osteoporosis mice induced by retinoic acid with high,middle,low doses of the above mixture.Based on the experimental results,the concentration of serum ATP of high dose group was very markedly higher than that of the model group,while the concentrations of serum BGP,serum Ca2+ and the ratio of HOP/Cr were markedly lower than that of the model group.The results indicated that the above mixture possess potentially preventive and therapeutic function on osteoporosis mice induced by retinoic acid.



Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz.


Ethanol Extract of Atractylodes macrocephala Protects bone Loss by Inhibiting Osteoclast Differentiation


The rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala has been used mainly in Traditional Chinese medicine for invigorating the functions of the stomach and spleen. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala (AMEE) on osteoclastogenesis differentiation. We found that AMEE inhibits osteoclastogenesis differentiation from its precursors induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), an essential cytokine required for osteoclastogenesis differentiation. AMEE attenuated RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, subsequently inhibiting the induction of osteoclastogenesis ogenic transcription factors, c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1.

Consistent with the in vitro results, administration of AMEE protected RANKL-induced bone loss in mice. We also identified atractylenolide I and II as active constituents contributing to the anti-osteoclastogenesis ogenic effect of AMEE. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AMEE has a protective effect on bone loss via inhibiting osteoclastogenesis differentiation and suggest that AMEE may be useful in preventing and treating various bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption.



Auricularia auricula


Anti‐Disuse osteoporosis activity of a Complex of calcium ‐Binding Peptide from Auricularia auricula Protein Hydrolysates


Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disease that is often seen in bedridden patients and astronauts. Long‐term bed rest and nonweight bearing tend to induce disuse osteoporosis. calcium supplements are commonly used to help treat disuse osteoporosis along with medications, most of which are calcium carbonate based, but they have poor absorption effects. In this study, we prepared a novel Auricularia auricula peptide–calcium complex (AP–Ca) and evaluated its protective effects on disuse osteoporosis. In vitro assays showed that AP–Ca significantly increased the contents of calcium (P < 0.05) and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AKP; P < 0.05) of osteoblasts cultured in a two‐dimensional‐rotating wall vessel.

Meanwhile, supplementation with AP–Ca also inhibited the production of pro‐inflammatory factors induced by the loss of stress, especially TNF‐α (P < 0.05). In vivo, a mouse tail suspension (TS) model was established, and the results showed that AP–Ca helped to improve bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and bone organic content in TS mice and effectively alleviated the alteration of enzymes related to bone metabolism, including AKP (P < 0.05) and serum tartrate‐resistant acid phosphatase (P < 0.05), to avoid more serious bone loss induced by TS. Furthermore, we found that AP–Ca downregulated the bone resorption‐associated pro‐inflammatory genes interleukin‐1 (IL‐1), tumor necrosis factor‐α, and IL‐6 by 59.53 ± 3.55%, 48.01 ± 5.68%, and 40.00 ± 5.89%, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, AP–Ca showed potential to suppress bone loss induced by disuse and might be considered a new alternative to reduce the risk of disuse osteoporosis.



Bambusa vulgaris


The aqueous and methanol extracts of Bambusa vulgaris (Poaceae) improve calcium and phosphorus levels, and bone microstructure in ovariectomized model of osteoporosis


Background: Osteoporosis represents the most common metabolic bone disease. Bambusa vulgaris (Poaceae) is a plant with potential antiosteoporotic effects, due to its phytoestrogenic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of aqueous and methanol extracts of B. vulgaris on osteoporosis in rats.

Methods: Adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal (n = 6) and ovariectomized (n = 42) groups. Twelve weeks after ovariectomy, animals were treated for 4 weeks as follows: distilled water (10 mL/kg, per os (p.o.)), 17β-estradiol (10 μg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)), soya oil (1 mL/kg, i.p.), aqueous or methanol extract of B. vulgaris (55 or 110 mg/kg, p.o.). All rats were weighed daily and sacrificed on day 29. Plasma was collected, and the uterus and femur were dissected out, weighed, and used for biochemical and histological measurements.

Results: In the untreated ovariectomized females, a non-significant (p > 0.05) increase in body weight and a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in the uterine and bone weights were recorded. Ovariectomy also significantly (p < 0.001) lowered the bone calcium and phosphorus concentrations, and deteriorated the microarchitecture of the femur. Interestingly, B. vulgaris extracts significantly (p < 0.001) improved the bone calcium concentration and femur microarchitecture (increase in trabecular bone density, reorganization of the trabecular network, and increase in bone marrow) with estrogenic-like effects compared to 17β-estradiol.

Conclusion: These results suggest that B. vulgaris is a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of osteoporosis. The present findings further justify the ethno-medicinal claims of B. vulgaris.



GINGKO Biloba


Potential antiosteoporotic effect of ginkgo biloba extract via regulation of SIRT1-NF-kB signaling pathway


Objective: Osteoporosis is bone disorder that happens when too much bone is damaged by the body, causing too little bone or both. As a consequence, bones are brittle and may crack from dropping or sneezing or small bumps in extreme situations. Ginkgo biloba is a Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and commonly used for the treatment of various bone related disease. The current experimental study aimed to scrutinize the anti-osteoporosis effect of Ginkgo biloba and explore the possible mechanism of action.

Methods: The rats were divided into following groups; Control, osteoporosis , osteoporosis received ginkgo biloba (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and rats were received the treatment after the surgery for 8 weeks. bone parameters, osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and cytokines were estimated. The expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF‑κB) were estimated.

Results: Dose dependently treatment of ginkgo biloba extract significantly altered the bone parameters such as increase the number of trabecular bone , trabecular bone thickness, connectivity density , ration of BV/TV and decrease the trabecular separation. Ginkgo biloba extract decreased the serum level of ALP, OC, Ca and P at dose dependent manner. ginkgo biloba extract decreased the cytokines at dose dependent manner. Ginkgo biloba extract also reduced the expression of SIRT1 and NF-kB.

Conclusion: We can conclude that ginkgo biloba extract showed the anti-osteoporosis effect via activation of SIRT1-NF-kB pathway.



Black Olive Hydroalcoholic


Stereological Study Of The effect Of Black Olive Hydroalcoholic On osteoporosis In Vertebra And Tibia In Ovariectomized Rats


A cocktail of many different antioxidants might be more effective than supplementation with a single molecule, and it closely resembles the natural environment in which active compounds were found. This is the first study well-grounded in stereological examination that showed that black olive extract effectively can ameliorate the quantitative changes of the bone structure and prevented bone loss in this osteoporosis animal model.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of black olive extract consumption on treatment of ovariectomized (OVX) induced osteoporosis in rats. This is the first study well-grounded in stereological examination.

Methods: Ninety adult rats were allocated to control, sham-operated, OVX, and olive-supplemented OVX groups (received 250-, 500-, and 750-mg/kg body weight black olive hydroalcoholic extract orally) for 16 weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected, and plasma levels of calcium , phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were assayed. Then, the specimens from both the tibia and fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) bones were processed, and stereological analysis was performed.

Results: Administration of extract resulted in decrease of alkaline phosphatase level during the treatment . After treatment of OVX rats with three doses of extract, the total number of the osteocytes revealed an increment in 500- and 750-mg/kg treated groups in comparison to the OVX group. This increment was significant only in L5. Compared to the OVX group, a significant increase was observed in the number of osteoblast sin L5 vertebra in three doses of extract-treated groups. However, this increment in tibia was statistically significant only in 750-mg/kg black olive hydroalcoholic extract-treated group. Moreover, the number of osteoclastogenesis cells were significantly decreased in vertebra and tibia in the treated groups compared to the OVX group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Black olive hydroalcoholic extract effectively can ameliorate the quantitative changes of the bone structure and prevented bone loss in this osteoporosis animal model. Thus, it can be a promising candidate for treatment of accelerated bone loss especially in postmenopausal osteoporosis.



Black Seed (Nigella Sativa)


Impact Of Black Seed (Nigella Sativa) On bone Turnover Markers In Postmenopausal Women With osteoporosis


Background and purpose: Experimental studies have shown that Ns (Nigella sativa) seeds oil can increase bone formation and may have anabolic effects on bone loss. This study was conducted to investigate the beneficial impacts of the oil of Black seeds on bone turnover in osteoporotic postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: A placebo controlled pilot study was carried out on 15 postmenopausal osteoporotic women of 48-74 years old. In addition to calcium -D supplements (2 tablets per day) all participants were randomly received Ns extract (3ml, 0.05 ml/kg/day p .o.) or placebo for 3 months. In all subjects hematological tests were performed and hepatic enzymes, BUN, Cr, Ca, P and plasma bone formation and resorption markers including osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (bone -ALP) and carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide (CTX) was determined before and after 12 weeks of treatment.

Results: Twelve participants completed the entire 12 weeks study course of which 5 and 7 women were belonged to Ns and placebo groups respectively. Women in placebo group were significantly older than women in Ns group. There were not significant differences between BMIs, BMD results and plasma levels of bone marker in two groups at the baseline and plasma levels of bone markers between Ns and placebo group at the end of 12 weeks. Alterations from baseline in bone markers levels did not differ significantly between two groups. We did not observe any side effects due to Ns therapy.

Conclusion: In this pilot study similar to the previous trial, we failed to show beneficial impact of Ns extract administration for a short time on bone turnover so we don’t suggest it for medicinal application in the osteoporosis condition. Long time duration studies with larger sample size and usage of a more tolerable dosage forms of Black seeds oil should be emphasized for further clarification of its useful anabolic effects on bone metabolism.



Black Tea


Phytoestrogenic effects Of Black Tea (Camellia Sinensis) In An Oophorectomized Rat (Rattus Norvegicus) Model Of osteoporosis


The adverse side effects of currently available anti-osteoporotic agents warrant the search for compounds with less toxic effects . In this study, we assessed the phytoestrogenic potentiality of whole aqueous extract of black tea (BTE) in a bilaterally oophorectomized rat model (2.5%, 1 ml/100 g body weight/day for 28 days). Although the supplementation was given for 28 days but, sign of revival of copulation period (estrous stage) from non-receptive diestrous stage was first noticed after 21 days of BTE supplementation in bilaterally oophorectomized rats. This was accompanied by a significant increase in serum estradiol level. To test whether this increase in serum estradiol level could have an influence upon the oophorectomy-induced damage of bone, we assessed marker parameters of bone resorption and osteoclastogenesisic activity (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase), collagen degradation (urinary hydroxyproline), bone loss (bone ash mineral content) and bone breaking strength (bone density ).

Results indicated that increase in serum estradiol level after BTE supplementation could significantly diminish oophorectomy-induced decaying changes in bone. This study proposes that aqueous BTE may be assessed as a phytoestrogenic compound for prevention against estrogen deficiency-related osteoporotic damages.



Bushen Huayu


treatment effect Of Bushen Huayu On Postmenopausal osteoporosis In Vivo


Bushen Huayu extract (BSHY), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been demonstrated to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis, however, the underlying mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of BSHY and the mechanisms underlying this effect in an in vivo postmenopausal osteoporosis animal model. A total of 1 g BSHY containing 7.12 μg icariin was prepared. Low-dose BSHY (BSHY-L; 11.1 g/kg), medium-dose BSHY (BSHY-M; 22.2 g/kg) and high-dose BSHY (BSHY-H; 44.4 g/kg) was administered to oophorectomized rats using intragastric infusion. Estradiol (E2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, as well as bone density , were determined. It was found that the levels of serum ALP in the BSHY-L, BSHY-M and BSHY-H groups (197.75±41.74, 166.63±44.83 and 165.63±44.90 IU/l, respectively) were significantly decreased compared with the model group (299.13±45.79 IU/l; P<0.05), whilst the levels of E2 (16.89±1.71, 17.95±1.40 and 18.34±1.43 pg/ml, respectively) increased compared with the model group (14.54±1.61; P<0.05). In addition, the levels of IL-6 decreased in the BSHY-L, BSHY-M and BSHY-H groups (91.85±14.81, 82.99±15.65 and 80.54±14.61 pg/ml, respectively) compared with the model group (105.93±16.50 pg/ml; P<0.05). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BSHY increased the bone density in the BSHY-L, BSHY-M and BSHY-H groups (0.20±0.014, 0.22±0.016 and 0.22±0.017 g/cm2, respectively) compared with the model group (0.19±0.011 g/cm2; P<0.05).

BSHY was also found to increase the number of osteoblasts in the BSHY-L, BSHY-M and BSHY-H groups (25.38±2.17, 29.25±2.12 and 30.00±2.39, respectively), compared with in the model group (14.75±2.38; P<0.05), and decrease the number of osteoclasts in the BSHY-L, BSHY-M and BSHY-H groups (4.00±1.85, 4.25±1.39 and 5.75±1.49, respectively) compared with 9.50±1.60 observed in the model group (P<0.05). These results suggest that BSHY is a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of osteoporosis in vivo. Furthermore, these results suggest that the mechanism by which BSHY decreases the serum levels of IL-6 may be by regulating E2.



Bushen Huoxue


Water Of Bushen Huoxue Compound improves osteoporosis Via Transcriptional And Translational Regulation Of Key Factors In Notch And Wnt/B-Catenin


Bushen Huoxue Compound is a Chinese herbal formula that shows promise in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis (OP), but the mechanisms underlying its anti-osteoporotic effects are yet to be established. Here, we detect the influence of theextract on several targets of the Notch and Wnt/b-catenin signaling pathways in bone tissue of ovariectomized rats as a model of OP with the aid of real-time PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemical staining. The water extract of BHC exerted a pronounced beneficial effect on OP rats and activated the Wnt/b-catenin pathway through regulating Wnt3a, Wnt10b protein, and glycogen synthesis kinase 3b (GSK-3b) mRNA. Furthermore, the BHC extract inhibited Jagged 1,2 protein and Notch 1,2 mRNA of the Notch signaling pathway. We detected simultaneous changes in the levels of a number of downstream transcripts, including increased runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx 2) and decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor b (PPARb ), which were closely correlated with the treatment effect.

Based on the collective findings, we propose that the water extract of BHC regulates OP-associated factors through modulation of key transcripts and proteins in the Notch and Wnt/b-catenin pathways. Our results provide further mechanistic evidence supporting the clinical efficacy of BHC in the treatment of OP.



Camellia Sinensis


Evidence For A Prospective Anti-osteoporosis effect Of Black Tea (Camellia Sinensis) In A Bilaterally Ovariectomized Rat Model


The purpose of this study was to examine whether whole aqueous black tea extract (BTE) prevents bone loss induced by ovarian hormone deficiency. Eighteen 95-100 days old female albino rats were randomly assigned to three treatment groups [sham -operated control (sham); bilaterally ovariectomized (ovx) and ovx + aqueous black tea extract (BTE) ] and sacrificed after 28 days. All animals were fed a standard laboratory diet with free access to deionized water except on days of urinary parameter studies when animals were given only calcium free deionized water during the entire 24 h period of urine collection. Body weight study revealed that rats in the ovx group had significantly higher final body weight than rats in the sham group. This higher final body weight was not observed in animals receiving BTE. The ovx group also had significantly higher abdominal fat mass and liver weight and significantly lower uterus, right kidney and left kidney weights than in other two groups. All these organ weight changes in ovx group also were not observed in animals receiving BTE. Results of urinary studies revealed that rats in the ovx group had significantly higher urinary excretion of calcium (Ca), phosphate, creatinine (Cr), calcium to creatinine (Ca:Cr) ratio (P< 0.001) and hydroxyproline (HPr) (P< 0.01) than rats in the sham group. Significant recovery of all these parameters were observed in animals receiving BTE. The ovx group also had significantly higher (P< 0.001) serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity than rats in the other two groups.

These changes could not be seen in animals receiving BTE. Also, identical changes were seen in bone density experiments. Rats in the ovx group had significantly lower densities of the right femur (P<0.001), eighth thoracic rib (P< 0.001), eighth thoracic vertebra (P< 0.05), and fourth lumbar vertebra (P< 0.01) than rats in the sham group; and significant improvement in densities of these bones were seen in animals supplemented with BTE. Animals of ovx group also showed significant decrease in calcium and phosphate level in all these bones which could be regained significantly when these animals were supplemented with BTE. Our findings suggest that aqueous BTE may be effective in preventing bone loss due to ovarian hormone deficiency. Because serum activity of AP, TRAP and urinary loss of bone minerals (Ca and Phosphate) and also the organic components of bone (Cr and HPr) were significantly greater in the ovx group, compared to sham animals and ovx + BTE group.

This confirms that ovariectomy enhances and BTE suppresses the rate of bone turnover. The density results of ovx + BTE group are significantly greater than rats in the ovx group, suggesting further that formation exceeded resorption . Detailed studies are underway to clarify the mechanism of this protective effect of BTE on hypogonadal bone loss.



Cassia Tora L. Seed


The Anti-osteoporosis effects Of Cassia Tora L. Seed Ethanol In Ovariectomixed Rats


In our study, osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomized in female rats, and the prevention and treatment efficacy of the climacteric disease the postmenopausal type I pattern was examined by using the experimental substance Cassia tora (CT) ethanol extracts. Female rats were either sham-operated (sham; n=5) or surgically ovariectomized (OVX; five animals per group) and then administered to OVX control, raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX) 1 mg/kg/day, or CT (20 and 200 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks.

Serum osteocalcin and creatinine concentration were significantly lower in the CT 200 mg/kg/day group compared with the OVX control group. Serum progesterone concentration was significantly higher in the CT 200 mg/kg/day group compared with the OVX control group. Reduction grade of the trabecular bone decreased in the RLX 1 and CT 200 mg/kg/ day group compared with that of the OVX control group. In conclusion, CT 200 mg/kg/day may have inhibitory effects on osteoporosis in OVX rats.



Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae


Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae Shows protective effect On osteoporosis In Rats


Purpose: To investigate the effect of Caulis lonicerae Japonicae extract (CLJE) on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats.

Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a control group (normal rats) and five ovariectomy (OVX) subgroups: OVX with vehicle (OVX), OVX with 17ß-estradiol (E2, 25µg/kg/day), and OVX with CLJE doses (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg/day). Daily oral administration of E2 or CLJE started 4 weeks after OVX and lasted for 16 weeks. The bone mineral density (BMD) of L4 vertebrae and right femurs was determined. The length of each femur was measured with a micrometer, and the center of the diaphysis was determined. Three representative L4 vertebrae were selected to evaluate trabecular microarchitecture. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urinary calcium (U-Ca), urinary phosphorus (U-P), urinary creatinine (Cr) and osteocalcin (OC) levels were measured using a diagnostic reagent kit.

Result: The results show that a high-dose of CLJE (600 mg/kg) significantly inhibited bone mineral density (BMD) reduction of L4 vertebrae (0.24 ± 0.02, p < 0.05) and femur (0.24 ± 0.03, p < 0.05) caused by OVX, and prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture (p < 0.05). High-dose CLJE also improved morphometric parameters, viz, trabecular number (Tb-N) (4.6 ± 0.3, p < 0.05), trabecular thickness (Tb-Th, 0.084 ± 0.012, p < 0.05) and trabecular separation (Tb-Sp, 0.14 ± 0.02, p < 0.05) in L4 vertebrae significantly.

Conclusion: The results indicate that CLJE prevents OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats. Thus, CLJE is a potential natural alternative for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in future.



Chicory Roots


The protective effect Of Nondigestible Oligosaccharides From Chicory Roots And Phyto Soya On osteoporosis In Rats


osteoporosis is a serious disorder of the skeleton. Postmenopausal women are at increased risk of osteoporosis because of the decline in estrogen production that occurs following menopause. The objective of the present study was to determine the protective effect of nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) from chicory roots and phyto soya extract rich with isoflavones whether using alone or in combination on the prevention of osteoporosis using ovariectomized (OVX) rats as model of postmenopausal women. Sixty female albino rats were subjected to either; Bilateral ovariectomized surgery (OVX, n=48), or sham operated surgery (Sham, n= 12), and then assigned to five groups of 12 rats each; {sham-operated control, OVX control, OVX supplemented with 5% Raftilose Synergy1, OVX supplemented orally with a dose of 30.6 mg phyto soya extract/rat/day and ® OVX supplemented with both 5% Raftilose Synergy1 plus 30.6 mg phyto soya extract/rat/day}. All ® rats fed a casein based diet (AIN-93M) for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment urine, blood and femur were sampled to investigate; serum calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, bone turnover markers (serum osteocalcin, serum total alkaline phosphatase and urinary deoxypyridinoline) and femoral BMD. The results of the study revealed that the significant reduction in serum mineral concentrations observed in the OVX control group compared to sham group as a result of estrogen deficiency were improved by supplementing the rats with Raftilose Synergy1 and/or phyto soya extract compared to ® OVX control rats.

Ovariectomy was found to elevate the rate of bone turnover as indicated by the higher levels of bone turnover markers in OVX control group comparing to sham group and as a result femoral BMD was reduced, but in the three supplemented OVX groups the elevation in the levels of bone turnover markers were significantly reduced comparing to OVX control group and this was followed by an improvement in the femoral BMD. The reduction of bone turnover markers and the improvement in femoral BMD was found to be higher in the OVX group received a combination of the two supplements than using each supplement alone. These results suggest that supplementation with NDOs or phyto soya extract rich with isoflavone prevent the bone loss which might occur as a result of the decline in estrogen production that occurs following menopause. The results may also suggest that a combination of these supplements may have an additive and cooperative effect on the prevention of bone loss.



Chondroitin Sulfate


Chondroitin Sulfate prevents STZ Induced Diabetic osteoporosis through Decreasing blood Glucose, antioxidative stress , anti-inflammation and OPG/RANKL Expression Regulation


Chondroitin sulfate (CS) has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-osteoarthritic and hypoglycemic effects . However, whether it has antidiabetic osteoporosis effects has not been reported. Therefore, in this study, we established a STZ-induced diabetic rat model; CS (500 mg kg−1 d−1) was orally administrated for eight weeks to study its preventive effects on diabetic osteoporosis. The results showed that eight weeks of CS treatment improved the symptoms of diabetes; the CS-treated group has increased body weight, decreased water or food intake, decreased blood glucose, increased bonemineral density, repaired bone morphology and decreased femoral osteoclasts and tibia adipocytes numbers.

After CS treatment, bone histomorphometric parameters returned to normal, the levels of serum inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) decreased significantly, serum SOD, GPX and CAT activities increased and MDA level increased. In the CS-treated group, the levels of serum ALP, CTX-1, TRACP 5b, osteocalcin and RANKL decreased and the serum RUNX 2 and OPG levels increased. bone immunohistochemistry results showed that CS can effectively increase the expression of OPG and RUNX2 and reduce the expression of RANKL in diabetic rats. All of these indicate that CS could prevent STZ induced diabetic osteoporosis —mainly through decreasing blood glucose, antioxidative stress, anti-inflammation and regulation of OPG/RANKL expression. CS can therefore effectively prevent bone loss caused by diabetes.



Cibotium Barometz


Anti-osteoporosis activity Of Cibotium Barometz On Ovariectomy-Induced bone Loss In Rats


Ethnopharmacological relevance: Recent research has confirmed that Cibotium barometz could inhibits osteoclastogenesis formation with no affect on BMM cell viability. However, the influence of Cibotium barometz on osteoporosis in animals is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study is to systemic ally investigate the effects of Cibotium barometz extract (CBE) on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats.

Materials and methods: A total of Seventy-two 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and randomly divided into sham-operated group and five ovariectomized (OVX) groups: OVX with vehicle; OVX with 17β-estradiol (E2, 25 μg/kg/day); OVX with CBE of graded doses (100, 300, or 500 mg/kg/day). Daily oral administration of E2 or CBE began 4 weeks after the surgery and lasted for 16 weeks. bone mass, bone turnover and strength were analyzed by DEXA, biochemical markers and three-point bending test. The trabecular bone microarchitecture was evaluated by MicroCT.

Results: CBE prevented total BMD decrease in the femur induced by OVX, which was accompanied by a significant decrease in skeletal remodeling, as was evidenced by the decreased levels of the bone turnover markers, such as osteocalcin (OC), alkaline phosphatese (ALP), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), and urinary Ca and P excretions. The treatment could also enhance the bone strength and prevent the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture.

Conclusions: The present study indicated that Cibotium barometz extract might be a potential alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.



Cicer Arietinum


Possible Antiosteoporotic Mechanism Of Cicer Arietinum In Ovariectomized Rats


Objective: The present study aimed to throw the light on the anti-osteoprotic mechanism of Cicer arietinum extract (CAE) seeds against ovariectomized (OVX) rats.

Methods: Seventy female rats were divided into two groups. The first group (14 rats/group) represented normal rats (Sham operated) while the second group (56 rats/group) underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX). After one week of recovery from ovariectomy surgery, the second group was randomly subdivided into 4 subgroups (14 rats/ each subgroup). The rats administered orally; distilled water (vehicle) (1st subgroup), Cicer arietinum extract (CAE) (500 or 1000 mg/kg body weight/day) (2nd and 3rd subgroups), alendronate (6.5 mg/kg mg/kg body weight) as a positive control one time/week (4rh subgroup), daily for 10 weeks.

Results: The present study demonstrated that ovariectomy caused significant decrease in bone mineral ; density (BMD) and content (BMC), bone -specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin levels. Furthermore, ovariectomy induced significant elevation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF-kappa β) ligand (RANKL) concentration. Conversely, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and OPG/RANKL ratio were decreased following ovariectomy. The present work suggests that CAE has antiosteoporotic action against ovariectomy effects and its activity may results from its phytochemical and/or phytoestrogen contents.

Conclusion: The ongoing study speculates that the CAE exerts its action through regulation of RANK/RANKL/OPG system. As, CAE not only promotes osteoblast differentiation, but also up-regulates OPG and downregulates RANKL secretion in osteoblasts, subsequently prevents bone loss and osteoporosis.



Cimicifuga


effect of Cimicifuga extract on osteoporosis


Aim: To study on the effects of Cimicifuga extract from Cimicifuga foetida L. on biomechanical characteristics of femur in ovariectomized rats.

Methods: The osteoporosis were induced by ovariectomy. After three months, the concentrations of estradiol in serum was measured by electric radiation immunologic method. bone density and mineral content of femur metaphysis of rats was measurd by Dual Energy X‐ray Absorbtionmetry(DEXA). Biomechanical characteristics of femur were measured by three point bending test and the index of uterus was calculated.

Results: The bone density and mineral content of femur metaphysis of rats increased remarkably. The resistance of bending and compression of rat femur was enhanced. While, there is no effect on the level of estradiol and index of uterus.

Conclusions: Cimicifuga extract had antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. The Cimicifuga extract exerted estrogenic effects in the bone , particularly in osteoblast s, while it didn’t play a role in the uterus of variectomized rats. The extract appears to contain rat organ‐specific selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), and if these findings can be approved in human it may be an alternative to hormone replacement therapy (HRT).



Cimicifuga Racemosa


Antiosteoporotic effects Of The Special Cimicifuga Racemosa Bno 1055


We and others have recently shown that extracts of the rhizome of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa=CR) contains one or several substance(s) that prevent osteoporosis in gonadectomized female and male rats. In two double-blind placebo-controlled trials in postmenopausal women, surrogate parameters of bone metabolism were also improved , indicating the reduction of osteoclasts and a stimulation of osteoblast activity . The mechanisms of actions, however, still remained unknown. It is known that osteoblasts produce the ligand for the receptor activator of NF-kB (Rank), which stimulates osteoclastogenesis ogenesis and function. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is another osteoblast product and is a decoy receptor for RANKL. Its high production prevents RANKL to activate RANK and thereby OPG inhibits osteoclastogenesis ogenesis and function. Furthermore, osteoblasts produce Osteocalcin, a protein that is essential for proper bone formation. To elucidate the function of the special CR extract BNO 1055 serum concentrations of RANKL, OPG and Osteocalcin were measured in female and male rats treated with 33 mg of the CR extract BNO 1055 orally over a period of 3 months. For positive control purposes, female ovariectomized rats were substituted with estradiol (E2) and males with E2 and testosterone (T). E2 and CR BNO 1055 suppressed serum RANKL concentrations in the serum significantly while E2 inhibited CR BNO 1055-stimulate d Osteocalcin production, reflecting an increased serum concentration. The production of OPG was also inhibited by E2 but unaffected by CR BNO 1055.

Quantitative computer tomography and histomorphometry indicated significantly less deterioration of the trabecular apparatus in the tibia in both CR BNO 1055- and E2- treated animals in comparison to castrated controls.

These data indicate a specific effect of substances in CR BNO 1055, which inhibits osteoblast RANKL production. Thereby osteoclastogenesis ogenesis and function are also inhibited, which may in part explain the antiosteoporotic effects of the CR extract. In addition, the stimulation of Osteocalcin points to a stimulatory effect of CR BNO 1055 on bone formation. Thus, the effects of CR BNO 1055 and E2 differ in that E2 suppresses all osteoblast parameters and thereby also osteoclastogenesis, whereas CR BNO 1055 appears to inhibit osteoclastogenesis ogenesis and function but simultaneously stimulates osteoblasts and thereby possibly osteogenesis .



Cinnamomum Cassia


The Standardized BHH10 Extract, a Combination of Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, Reverses bone Mass and Metabolism in a Rat Model of Postmenopausal osteoporosis


Jasin‐hwan‐gagambang (BHH10), a modified prescription of Jasin‐hwan, contains Astragalus membranaceus, Cinnamomum cassia, and Phellodendron amurense, and it has been traditionally used to treat osteoporosis and other inflammatory diseases. In this study, we systematically investigated the protective effects of BHH10 in ovariectomy (OVX)‐induced rats. Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and OVX subgroups. The rats in the OVX group were treated with vehicle, BHH10, alendronate (ALN), and 17β‐estradiol (E2). BHH10 treatment significantly inhibited OVX‐induced increases in body weight and uterus atrophy.

In addition, it significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) and prevented a decrease in trabecular bone volume, connectivity density, trabecular number, thickness, and separation at the total femur and femur neck. The OVX rats showed significant decreases in the serum levels of calcium and phosphorous and significant increases in the serum levels of cholesterol, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C‐telopeptide type 1 collagen , and bone morphogenetic protein‐2. These changes were significantly reduced to near sham levels by administration of BHH10 to OVX rats. BHH10‐treated rats had a greater bone mass, a better structural architecture of the bone, and higher levels of biochemical markers of the bone than did the ALN‐treated or E2‐treated rats. These results suggest that BHH10 reverses osteoporosis in OVX rats by stimulating bone formation or regulating bone resorption and is not associated with toxicity.



Cissus Quadrangularis


Antiosteoporotic activity Of Phytoestrogen-Rich Fraction Separated From Ethanol Of Aerial Parts Of Cissus Quadrangularis In Ovariectomized Rats


Objective: Cissus quadrangularis L. (C. quadrangularis L.) (Vitaceae) has been reported in Ayurveda for its antiosteoporotic activity . The study separated the phytoestrogen-rich fraction (IND-HE) from aerial parts of C. quadrangularis L. and evaluated its effect on osteoporosis caused by ovariectomy in rats.

Materials and Methods: IND-HE was separated from the ethanol extract of C. quadrangularis. Ovariectomized female Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 6). Group 1: Control (distilled water), Group II: IND-HE (75 mg/kg p.o.), Group III: IND-HE (100 mg/kg p.o.) were treated once daily for 8 weeks and Group IV: standard estradiol group, received estrogen (1 mg/kg, s.c. bi-weekly). The effects on body weight were determined. DEXA (Dual energy-emission X-ray absorptimatory analysis) of whole body bone and femur was carried out. blood was removed and analyzed for biochemical parameters. After sacrificing the animals, biomechanical study of right tibia and histopathology of pelvic bone was carried out.

Results: IND-HE showed presence of phytoestrogen-rich fraction. IND-HE (75 and 100 mg/ kg) and estrogen treatment showed statistically significant increase in bone thickness, bone density and bone hardness. IND-HE (75 and 100 mg/kg) and estrogen treatment significantly increased serum estradiol. IND-HE (100 mg/kg) (P<0.05) and estrogen treatment increased serum vitamin D3 and serum calcium compared to control. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly reduced by IND-HE (100 mg/kg p.o.) and estrogen treatment . Histopathology and DEXA results indicated that IND-HE (75 and 100 mg/kg) prevented bone loss.

Discussion and Conclusion: These findings confirm that phytoestrogen-rich fraction (IND- HE) possess good antiosteoporotic activity .



Cissus Quadrangularis Linn


Antiosteoporotic effect Of Ethanol Of Cissus Quadrangularis Linn. On Ovariectomized Rat


Ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis was evaluated for its anti-osteoporotic activity in ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis at two different dose levels of 500 and 750 mg/kg per day. Healthy female albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. First group was sham operated and served as control. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control. Groups 3-5 were orally treated with Raloxifen (5.4 mg/kg) and ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (500 and 750 mg/kg), respectively. The findings assessed on the basis of biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters showed that the ethanol extract of the plant had a definite antiosteoporotic effect.



Cistanche Deserticola Ma


Anti-osteoporosis effect Of Cistanche Deserticola Ma In Ovariectomized Rats


Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effects of Cistanche deserticola Ma. extract (CDME) on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats.

Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a control group and five ovariectomy (OVX) subgroups, that is, OVX with vehicle (OVX), OVX with 17ß-estradiol (E2, 25 μg/kg/day), and OVX with CDME doses (40, 80, or 160 mg/kg/day). Daily oral administration of E2 or CDME started 4 weeks after OVX and lasted for 16 weeks. bone mineral density (BMD) of L4 vertebrae and right femur of rats was estimated, The length of each femur was measured, and biochemical analysis of serum and urine specimens were performed.

Results: CDME dose-dependently inhibited the reduction in BMD of L4 vertebrae (0.23 ± 0.02 g/cm3, p < 0.05) and femurs (0.20 ± 0.03 g/cm3, p < 0.05) caused by OVX and prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture (p < 0.05), which were accompanied by a significant decrease in skeletal remodeling (p < 0.05) as evidenced by the lower levels of bone turnover markers.

Conclusion: This study indicates that CDME prevents OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats, and could be used for treating osteoporosis in elderly women.



Citrus aurantifolia L. cv. Swingle Peel


protective effect of Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantifolia against osteoporosis and their phytochemical constituents


The efficacy of Citrus aurantifolia L. cv. Swingle and Citrus sinensis L. cv. Liucheng against osteoporosis was evaluated in an ovariectomized rat model. Administration ofCitrus extracts increased trabecular bone mineral content and bone mineral density of tibia, improved the levels of phosphorus and calcium . The results demonstrated that Citrusextracts reduced bone loss in ovariectomized rats. These findings have prompted the authors to investigate the phytochemical constituents of those plants, collected in Saudi Arabia, for the first time. Eighteen compounds were obtained from both plants and classified into, eight coumarins (1 – 8), eight flavonoids (9 – 16) and two sterols analogues (17 and 18). Leaves and peels of C. aurantifolia afforded eleven components, while those of C. sinensis afforded fourteen compounds. Structures of the isolated compounds were deduced by UV, NMR and MS spectra, and comparison with related structures, in whichisobergapten (6), marmesin (7), myricetin (11), 4′,5,7-trihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy flavone (12), and quercetin-3-O-robinobioside (14), were reported to first time from Citrus species,Coumarins, flavonoids and sterols from C. aurantifolia and C. sinensis could be responsible for their antiosteoporotic activity and the action mechanism of these constituents needs to be further studied. Therefore, Citrus extracts have the potential to develop a clinically useful antiosteoporotic agent.



Citrus sinensis L. cv. Liucheng Peel


protective effect of Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantifolia against osteoporosis and their phytochemical constituents


The efficacy of Citrus aurantifolia L. cv. Swingle and Citrus sinensis L. cv. Liucheng against osteoporosis was evaluated in an ovariectomized rat model. Administration ofCitrus extracts increased trabecular bone mineral content and bone mineral density of tibia, improved the levels of phosphorus and calcium.

The results demonstrated that Citrusextracts reduced bone loss in ovariectomized rats. These findings have prompted the authors to investigate the phytochemical constituents of those plants, collected in Saudi Arabia, for the first time. Eighteen compounds were obtained from both plants and classified into, eight coumarins (1 – 8), eight flavonoids (9 – 16) and two sterols analogues (17 and 18). Leaves and peels of C. aurantifolia afforded eleven components, while those of C. sinensis afforded fourteen compounds. Structures of the isolated compounds were deduced by UV, NMR and MS spectra, and comparison with related structures, in whichisobergapten (6), marmesin (7), myricetin (11), 4′,5,7-trihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy flavone (12), and quercetin-3-O-robinobioside (14), were reported to first time from Citrus species,Coumarins, flavonoids and sterols from C. aurantifolia and C. sinensis could be responsible for their antiosteoporotic activity and the action mechanism of these constituents needs to be further studied.

Therefore, Citrus extracts have the potential to develop a clinically useful antiosteoporotic agent.



Cordyceps Sinensis


prevention Of Disuse osteoporosis In Rats By Cordyceps Sinensis


Cordyceps sinensis has been known as a traditional medicine in China, and C. sinensis plus strontium could prevent osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. The present study shows that daily oral administration of C. sinensis at higher doses in adult hind limb suspension rats can prevent disuse-induced bone loss and deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture.

Introduction: Cordyceps sinensis induces estradiol production and prevents osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. This study was to examine whether C. sinensis can prevent disuse-induced osteoporosis.

Methods: Rats were randomly divided into six groups, and five groups were treated with hind limb suspension (HLS). One HLS group received alendronate (2.0 mg/kg/day) orally, and to the three other HLS groups to each group, a different amount of C. sinensis (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for 8 weeks before and after HLS. The remaining HLS group was set as a control without treatment . Each group consisted of 10 males and females. The body weights, biochemical parameters in serum and urine, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), mechanical testing, and bone microarchitecture were examined.

Results: treatments with higher C. sinensis dosage (300 and 500 mg/kg/day) or alendronate had a positive effect on body weights, mechanical strength , BMD, and BMC compared to the other HLS groups. C. sinensis decreased markers of bone turnover dose dependently and increased the osteocalcin levels in HLS rats. The result of micro-CT analysis from the L4 vertebra showed that C. sinensis (500 mg/kg) significantly prevented the reduction of the bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabeculae number, and thickness as well as improved the trabeculae separation and structure model index in HLS rats.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that administration of C. sinensis at higher doses over an 8-week period can prevent the disuse osteoporosis in rats. It implies that C. sinensis might be an alternative therapy for prevention of disuse-induced osteoporosis also in humans.



Corni Fructus


effects Of The Herbal-Acupuncture With Corni Fructus At Eumgok (Ki10) On osteoporosis In Ovariectomized Mice


Objective & Method: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of herbal-acupuncture with Corni Fructus extract (CF-HA) at Eumgok(KI10) on osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX) ddy mice. I carried out several experimental items to analyze the changes in body weight, uterine weight, uterus index, tibial length, the ash bone weight, tibial BMD, the levels of serum ALP, osteocalcin, Ca, P and the levels of tibial Ca, P, Ca/P ratio, and we performed histological and histomorphological analysis as well.

Result: 1. CF-HA at Eumgok(KI10) significantly did not increase the level of bone mineral density in overiectomized mice. 2. CF-HA at Eumgok(KI10) significantly decreased the level of serum phosphorus in ovariectomized mice and sinificantly increased the level of serum calcium in ovariectomized mice. 3. CF-HA at Eumgok(KI10) significantly increased the levels of tibial calcium and phosphorus in ovariectomized mice. 4. CF-HA at Eumgok(KI10) significantly decreased the number of tibial osteoclastogenesis like cell in ovariectomized mice. 5. In the histomorphometric analysis of tibia, GPL(growth plate length) was significantly decreased by CF-HA at Eumgok(KI10) in ovariectomized mice.

Conclusions: These results suggest that CF-HA at Eumgok(KI10) may have useful therapy effects on osteoporosis in ovariectomized mice.



Cuscuta Chinensis


Beneficial effects Of Cuscuta Chinensis On Glucocorticoid-Induced osteoporosis Through Modulation Of Rankl/Opg Signals


Cuscuta chinensis Lam. (Convolvulaceae) is an important herbal medicine widely used to improve sexual function, treat osteoporosis , and prevent aging, and has been reported to exhibit anti-osteoporotic effects in vitro. However, the activity of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis still remains unclear. The present study aimed to assess the protective effect and the underlying mechanism of action of Cuscuta chinensis extract (CCE) against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups as follows: control group, osteoporosis group, and 2 CCE-treated osteoporosis groups (100 mg·kg-1·day-1). blood samples and femur bones were collected for immunohistochemistry, biochemical, mRNA expression, and western blot analysis. HPLC analysis revealed that chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and hyperin were the major constituents of CCE. The results indicated that CCE increased bone length, bone weight, and bone mineral density and suppressed dexamethasone (DEX)-induced reduction in body weight.

In addition, TRAP staining indicated that CCE reduced osteoclasts in DEX-induced osteoporosis rats. Mechanistically, CCE treatment alleviate d the increase of bone resorption markers and the decline of osteogenic markers, which might be partially mediated by regulation of RANKL/OPG and RunX2 pathways. These results suggest that CCE showed promising effects in the protection against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis through protecting osteoblasts and suppressing osteoclastogenesis ogenesis.



Cuscutae Semen


effects Of Cuscutae Semen On prevention Of osteoporosis In Ovariectomized Rats


Objectives: Osteoporosis , which occurs after menopause, is a kind of metabolic bone disorder. It develops when the bone mass begins to decrease radically, and its main symptoms are bone fracture and height-shortening. This thesis aims at what effects the Cuscutae Semen Extract(CSE) has on the prevention of osteoporosis in SD-rat that is caused by ovariectomy.

Methods: The 24 female white rats, after removing their ovaries, were divided into the Normals, the Control group, and the CSE administrated group. For the next 8 weeks, distilled water to the normals and the control, and the CSE(45.9 mg/100 g) to the CSE administrated group were given in the mouths of them. After 8 weeks the rats were sacrificed. Weight, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total-cholesterol, triglyceride, phosphorus, calcium , tetraiodothyronine, estradiol, the weight of the femur, the amount of tibia ash, the area of trabecular bone , and the thickness of trabecular bone were measured.

Results: The serum analysis shows that the calcium and phosphorous of the CSE administrated group significantly increased compared to that of the control group. Aspartate aminotransferase, alkalinephosphatase, total cholesterol, tetraiodothyronine of CSE group were decreased , but not so significant. Albumin, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride and estradiol of the group showed the tendency to increase, but the significance wasn’t admitted. Regarding the variation of bone , the femur weight and the ash content of tibia, CSE group was more increased than the control group but the significance wasn’t admitted. The histological observation shows that the trabecular thickness was more increased than the control group, and trabecular area increased significantly compared to those of the control group. The number of osteoclastogenesis and osteoblast area of the CSE groups decreased significantly compared to those of the control group.

Conclusions: From the result of the above study, CSE should be effective for the osteoporosis cure and precaution and deeper study through bedside and clinical demonstration is much needed from now on.



Cynomorium songaricum Rupr.


The effect of Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats


Objective: To investigate the anti-osteoporotic effect of 80% ethanol extracts of Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. in ovariectomized( OVX) rat model,and both bone formation and bone resorption index were used to estimate the underlying mechanisms of the action.

Methods: A total of 50 female Sprague-Dawley( SD) rats aged 3 months were randomly divided into five groups: the rats in the Sham control group underwent bilateral laparotomy without removing the ovaries,and the remainders underwent bilateral ovariectomy and equally randomized into model group,1 mg/kg body weight of estradiol valerate as positive control group,100 and 300 mg/kg body weight of extracts of Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. as low and high dosage groups,respectively. On the last day of 12 weeks of continues administration,the total bone mineral density ( BMD) as well as morphometric parameters were determined by a micro-CT scanner. The levels of serum Ca,P and the activities of alkaline phosphatase( ALP) were measured by automatic analyzer,and deoxypyridinoline( DPD),tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase( TRAP),cathepsin K were determined by ELISA. Results: 300 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg dosage groups of the 80% ethanol extracts of Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. significantly enhanced total bone mineral density ,improved bone trabecular microarchitecture,increased serum Ca and P content,decreased the activity of bone resorption markers including TRAP,DPD and cathepsin K in OVX rats,as compared with the Sham group.

Conclusion: Our data implied that Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. possessed antiosteoporotic effect, and this effect was exerted by the suppressing bone resorption and increasing bone formation,which suggested Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. might be a promising agent for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis disease.



Dalbergia Sissoo


A Clinical Study Of A Standardized Of Leaves Of Dalbergia Sissoo (Roxb Ex Dc) In Postmenopausal osteoporosis


Context: Dalbergia sissoo had shown anti-osteoporotic and fracture healing activities in animal models of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO). Standardized extract of leaves of D. sissoo (SEL-Ds) was clinically evaluated for osteoporosis.

Aims: To investigate the anti-osteoporotic activity of D. sissoo in PMO by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), biochemical markers, and effect on clinical profile. Tolerability was assessed by organ function tests and adverse events.

Settings and Design: An open-labeled prospective clinical study in ambulant settings was conducted at the menopausal health-care facility of a women’s hospital.

Materials and Methods: Thirty women (45–69 years) were enrolled for this 1-year study. Evaluations were basally, fortnightly twice, and three monthly four times. SEL-Ds (300 mg) twice daily was administered orally. calcium (250 mg) and Vitamin D (200 IU) were given twice a day. The efficacy of SEL-Ds was assessed by DXA-scan (spine, femur), by biochemical markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and anti-inflammatory marker high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Baseline symptom changes and adverse events were carefully recorded.

Statistical Analysis: Summary statistics (n, mean, standard deviation, median, and maximum and minimum values) of changes from baseline values and Student’s “t-” test for P values were used.

Results and Discussion: SEL-Ds was well tolerated at given dose for 1 year. Anti-osteoporotic and anti-inflammatory activities of SEL-Ds were demonstrated by reduction in TNF-α (12.04 ± 2.81–2.35 ± 1.08 pg/ml), ALP (208.75 ± 45.88–154.52 ± 37.25 IU/L), and hs-CRP (6.1 ± 0.77–3.9 ± 0.47 mg/L). BMD-score on DXA-scan also remained unchanged at majority of the bone locations (increased 13/75, unchanged 51/75, and decreased 08/75).

Conclusions: D. sissoo has demonstrated anti-osteoporotic and anti-inflammatory activities as indicated by decline in circulating TNF-α along with concurrent reduction in ALP. The nondecline in BMD index in the majority confirms the anti-osteoporotic activity.



Daucus Carota


Evaluation Of Ethanolic Root Of Daucus Carota On Steroid Induced osteoporosis In Rats.


Objective: To evaluate the anti-osteoporotic activity of ethanolic extract of Daucus carota (DC) roots on steroid induced osteoporosis in rats.

Material and methods: Female wistar rats were divided into five groups of (n=6) each. osteoporosis was induced by intramuscular administration of dexamethasone 7mg/kg once a week for four weeks to all groups of rats except normal control group. Group I served as normal control and received normal saline. Group II served as disease control injected with dexamethasone 7mg/kg (i.m). Group III served as standard control and treated with sodium alendronate 0.2mg/kg orally from 15th to 28th day. Group IV and V were treated with DC at doses of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg (p.o) respectively from 15th to 28th day. Following treatment, antiosteoporotic effect of DC was evaluated by biochemical and biomechanical analysis and radiological observation along with histopathological examination among the experimental groups.

Results: Rats treated with ethanolic extract of DC (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) showed significant (P <0.01and P < 0.001) increase in level of serum calcium and phosphorus, whereas serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) decreased. A significant (P < 0.001) increase in bone weight, thickness, hardness was observed when compared to the disease control group. It was further confirmed by radiological and histopathological examination of femur bone.

Conclusion: The present findings propose that ethanolic extract of Daucus carota possess potent antiosteoporotic activity in steroid induced osteoporotic rats.



Deer Antler


Anti-bone resorption effect Of Deer Antler In Postmenopausal osteoporosis Model Rats


Background: Examination of the effects of deer antler, old antler, and antler glue on postmenopausal osteoporosis in an ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rat model. Methods The study involved 7 experimental groups; SHAM (sham-operated rats), OVX (ovariectomized rats), E2 (ovariectomized rats with estradiol 10 μg/kg daily, orally), DA (ovariectomized rats with deer antler extract 5.83 mg/kg), OA (ovariectomized rats with old antler extract 3.8 mg/kg), low-AG (ovariectomized rats with low dose of antler glue powder 12.5 mg/kg), high-AG (ovariectomized rats with high dose of antler glue powder 37.5 mg/kg). After 6 weeks of treatment , body weight, blood calcium , phosphorus, estradiol, liver [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT)] and kidney [blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/creatinine ratio] function, and femoral bone mineral density (BMD) were measured.

Results: The body weights of DA, OA, low-AG, and high-AG groups did not significantly differ from OVX group. blood estradiol levels were significantly increased in the DA, low-AG, and high-AG groups compared to the OVX group. blood calcium , phosphorus, ALP, AST, and ALT levels and BUN/creatinine ratio did not show significant changes in the DA, OA, low-AG, and high-AG groups. BMDs of the femur, and femoral head and neck were significantly increased in the low-AG group. In the OA group, the BMD of the femoral head and neck was significantly increased.

Conclusions: Treatment with deer antler, or antler glue for 6 weeks was effective for increasing estradiol and femoral BMD in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that this may be of therapeutic benefit for osteoporosis.



Dendrobium Officinale Orchid


Dendrobium Officinale Orchid prevents Ovariectomy-Induced osteoporosis In Vivo And Inhibits Rankl-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation In Vitro


Background:Dendrobium officinale, a traditional Chinese medical herb with high value that is widely used in Asia, possesses many positive effects on human health, including anti-chronic inflammation , anti-obesity, and immune modulation properties; however, whether D. officinale has inhibitory effects on postmenopausal osteoporosis remains unknown.

Objective: We investigated the effects of D. officinale extract (DOE) on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo and on osteoclastogenesis ogenesis in vitro.

Methods:In vivo, female rats were divided into a sham-operated (sham) group and five ovariectomized (OVX) subgroups: OVX with vehicle (OVX), OVX with Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao capsule (240 mg/kg body weight/day), and OVX with low-, medium-, and high-dose DOE (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively). Animals in each group were administered their corresponding treatments for 13 weeks. Body weight, serum biochemical parameters, uterine and femoral physical parameters, bone mineral density (BMD), bone biomechanical properties, and bone microarchitecture were obtained. In vitro, the effects of DOE on osteoclastogenesis ogenesis were examined using RAW264.7 cells . The effects of DOE on osteoclastogenesis ogenesis and the expression of osteoclastogenesis -specific marker genes and proteins were determined.

Results: DOE effectively ameliorated serum biochemical parameters, especially alleviated estradiol (E2) deficiency and maintained calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. DOE improved uterine and femoral physical parameters. In addition, DOE improved femoral BMD and biomechanical properties. DOE significantly ameliorated bone microarchitecture. Moreover, DOE inhibited osteoclastogenesis ogenesis independent of its cytoxicity and suppressed the expression of osteoclastogenesis -specific marker genes and proteins.

Conclusion: DOE can effectively prevent ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo and inhibit osteoclastogenesis ogenesis in vitro.



Dendropanax Morbifera


In vitro evaluation of the potential therapeutic role of Dendropanax morbifera extract in ameliorating osteoporosis and resultant bone impairment using MC3T3-E1 cells


Osteoporosis is a widespread musculoskeletal deformity that affects thousands of older people every year, leading to bone abnormalities and ultimately increasing the risk of bone fractures in both genders. It is considered a lethal disease causing death in thousands of people at the late stage of life. Dendropanax morbifera Leveille is a subtropical broad-leaved prevalent species in Korea. Extracts of the leaves, stem s, roots, and seeds of D. morbifera have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases such as diabetes, atherogenesis, skin disorders, and headaches. However, the anti-osteoporosis effects of D. morbifera have not been examined. The primary objectives of this study were to elucidate the anti-osteoporosis effect of D. morbifera extract through an in vitro study using pre-osteoblast ic MC3T3-E1 cells.

We found that D. morbifera strongly increased the expression of bone metabolic markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, type I collagen (Col-I) level, and mineral ization. Additionally, D. morbifera extract also upregulated the mRNA expression levels of osteogenic genes including ALP, osteocalcin (OCN), osterix (Osx), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in MC3T3-E1 cells via upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2)/p38 MAPK/JNK and Smad1/5/8 signaling pathways. Moreover, addition of D. morbifera significantly suppressed the inhibitory effect of SB203580 (p38 inhibitor).

In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that D. morbifera extract significantly increased osteoblast differentiation and mineral ization in MC3T3-E1 cells by regulating BMP-2/p38/JNK and Smad1/5/8. Our study might be helpful in the discovery and development of new anti-osteoporosis therapeutic agents.



Dioscorea Spongiosa


Antiosteoporotic activity Of The Water Of Dioscorea Spongiosa


After 60 MeOH and water extracts of natural crude drugs were screened for their ability to stimulate osteoblast proliferation, four MeOH extracts (Cynomorium songaricum, Drynaria fortunei, Lycium chinense, Rehmannia glutinosa) and seven water extracts (Cornus officinalis, Dendrobium nobile, Dioscorea spongiosa, Drynaria fortunei, Eucommia ulmoides, Lycium chinensis, Viscum coloratum) showed that potent activities were evaluated for inhibition of osteoclastogenesis formation.

The results indicated that the water extract of D. spongiosa not only showed the strongest stimulation of osteoblast proliferation but also possessed potent inhibitory activity aganist osteoclastogenesis formation, whereas it showed lower cytotoxicity in osteoblast and bone marrow cells . A further in vivo experiment determined the antiosteoporotic activity of this extract, in which it inhibited the decrease in cancellous bone mineral content, cancellous bone mineral density , and cortical bone mineral content of the proximal tibia in ovariectomized rats.



Dried Plum


preventive effect Of Dried Plum Against Dexamethasone-Induced osteoporosis In Male Rats Through Inhibiting Cathepsin-K activity , Lipogenesis


Objectives: bone protective effect of dried plum extract (DPE) was investigated in dexamethasone (DEX) treated male rats, as an animal model of osteoporosis. Material and methods: Rats received intramuscular injection of DEX (7 mg/kg b.wt.) once a week for 4 weeks, whereas DPE (150 mg/kg b.wt.) was given orally for the same duration. Results: DEXtreated rats exhibited significant decline in the body weight accompanied by marked reduction in serum and bone minerals (Ca, P), bone mineral density (BMD) and serum total protein (TP) with elevation in serum creatinine (CR) level. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin (OC) and hydroxyproline (HYP) were increased, whereas calcitonin (CT), insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were decreased , along with notable reduction in bone collagen type-1 (Col-1).

Marked elevation in serum and bone lipids (TL, TG, TC), alkaline and acid phosphatases (ALP, ACP), as well as bone cathepsin-K (Cath-K) and oxidative stress markers [hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdhyde (MDA)] were recorded with decreased antioxidant components [reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)] in bone of DEX treated rats. bone histopathological alterations were also observed with DEX treatment , as reflected by thinning of trabecular bone and loss of connection with noticeable porosity, indicating bone fragility.

Consumption of DPE showed high ability to protect against DEX-induced biochemical and histological alterations in bone tissue, particularly through normalizing BMD and improving trabecular bone thickness and structure. Conclusion: Dried plum could be considered as a potential dietary approach for preventing bone loss and structural deterioration caused by DEX treatment .



drynariae rhizoma


Metabonomic study on protective effect of ethanol s of drynariae rhizoma on osteoporosis in rats urine by using UPLC-MS/MS


This paper was designed to study metabonomic characters of the osteoporosis induced by high dose of hydrocortisone and the protective effects of Drynariae Rhizoma, which can replenish the kidney and strength en the bones . A urinary metabonomics method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed. Clear separation of healthy control group, model group and treatment group was achieved by using the principal components analysis (PCA) and 9 significantly changed metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers of osteoporosis.

Compared with the health control group, the model group rats showed lower levels of creatinine, citric acid, azelaic acid, hippurate, tryptophan and indoxyl sulfate together with higher levels of phenylalanine, cresol sulfate and phenaceturic acid. These changes in urinary metabolites suggest that the disorders of amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, gut microflora and anti-oxidative damage are related to osteoporosis induced by high dose of hydrocortisone and the potential effect of Drynariae Rhizoma on all the four metabolic pathways.



Du–Zhong–Wan Water


Antiosteoporotic activity Of Du–Zhong–Wan Water In Ovariectomized Rats


Context: Eucommiae Cortex and Radix Dipsaci, occurring in a ratio of 1:1 in Du-Zhong-Wan (DZW), a Chinese herbal medicine , is available as a water extract followed by ethanol precipitation for the treatment of osteoporosis , fractures and menopausal syndrome. Objective This study investigates the protective effects of DZW in ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in a rat osteopenia model.

Materials and methods: Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham-operated group (SHAM) and five OVX subgroups: OVX with vehicle (OVX), 17β-estradiol (E2) and with three graded doses of DZW. Daily oral administration of the different samples started on the fifth week and lasted for 12 weeks, respectively. The body weight, uterus wet weight, serum biochemical parameters, bone mineral density (BMD), bone biomechanical properties, bone microarchitecture and immunohistochemistry were examined.

Results: Compared with the SHAM group, the DZW treatment significantly reversed the osteoporotic changes in OVX rats. The DZW-H group showed that serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b) levels reduced by 152.25% (p < 0.01) and osteocalein (OCN) levels dose dependently increased by 118.43% (p < 0.01) as compared with the OVX group. Compared with the OVX group, the DZW at different three dosages of DZW evidently increased the right femur BMD by 112.43, 114.56 and 116.45%, and dramatically promoted bone quality and bone strength (p < 0.05). Further, immunohistochemical evaluation also showed that DZW administration increased ER expression in uteri (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: DZW exhibits an anti-osteoporotic effect , probably mediated via phyto-estrogenic effects . It might be a potential herbal alternative for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis.



Elaeagnus Angustifolia Fruit


Stereological Investigation Of The effect Of Elaeagnus Angustifolia Fruit Hydroalcoholic On osteoporosis In Ovariectomized Rats


Objective: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by increased fracture risk. However, each approved treatment has specific side effects. Therefore, foods with plant origins have increasingly attracted attention as an alternative treatment. Studies have shown that Elaeagnus angustifolia (EA) has antioxidant properties. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of EA hydroalcoholic extract on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats using stereological methods.

Material and methods: 55 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control, sham operated (normal saline), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX + EA fruit extract (600 mg/kg BW/day), and OVX + estradiol benzoate (3 mg/kg BW) for 16 weeks. blood samples were collected to measure calcium , phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) plasma levels. Then, specimens from tibia and fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) bones were prepared and stereological analysis was done.

Results: Ovariectomy significantly decreased the calcium level and increased the ALP level in the OVX group. In spite of improvement in calcium hemostasis in groups treated with estrogen and EA fruit extract (p<0.05), only treatment with estrogen was able to reduce ALP levels. Moreover, treatment with EA fruit extract and estrogen caused a significant increase in the number of osteoblasts in vertebra and tibia compared to the OVX group (p<0.05). Estrogen and EA fruit extract were also able to reduce the number of osteoclasts in tibia of the treated OVX rats (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The results showed that EA extract exerted more effects, markedly, on osteoblastogenesis in the OVX rats. Thus, it could be considered as a potential agent to treat patients with osteoporosis.



Eleutherococcus Senticosus Bark


preventive effects Of Eleutherococcus Senticosus Bark In Ovx-Induced osteoporosis In Rats


Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng), has been used as a powerful tonic herb with an impressive range of health benefits. This medicinal herb has been commonly used to treat bone metabolism diseases due to its traditional Korean medicine use to strength en muscle and bone. This study was conducted to investigate prevention of bone loss by a standardized extract of dried E. senticosus stem bark in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. The OVX groups were divided into five groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (E2 10 μg/kg, once daily, i.p) and dried stem bark of E. senticosus extracts (DES 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, once daily, p.o) for eight weeks, respectively.

After eight weeks of treatments, the femur bone mineral density of the 100 mg/kg DES-treated group was significantly higher than that of the OVX-control group (16.7%, p < 0.01) without affecting the body, organs, and uterus weights, and serum estradiol levels. Additionally, bone markers such as serum ALP, CTx, and OC levels were significantly decreased in the DES 100 mg/kg treated group.

These results show that DES is able to prevent OVX-induced in bone loss without the influence of hormones such as estrogen.



Epimedium


effects Of Water From Epimedium On Neuropeptide Signaling In An Ovariectomized osteoporosis Rat Model


Ethnopharmacological relevance: For the past millennium, water extract from Epimedium (dried leaves of Epimedium brevicornu Maxim.) has been widely used for bone disease therapy in traditional Chinese medicine and has been reported to exhibit salutary effects on osteoporosis in clinical trials. The therapeutic effect of Epimedium is associated with the function of the brain in traditional Chinese medicine theory.

Study aim: To determine the potential relationship between treating osteoporosis with Epimedium and neuropeptide regulation.

Materials and methods: Water extract from Epimedium was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed with HPLC-TOF-MS. Ovariectomized rats were used as an osteoporosis model and were treated orally with water extract from Epimedium 16 weeks after surgery to mimic clinical therapy. After treatment , gene expression and protein levels of four neuropeptides, as well as their main receptors or receptor precursors including; neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its receptors NPY 1 (NPYR1) and 2; calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor precursor calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR); vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and its receptor VIP 1 (VIP1R) and 2; and substance P (SP) and its receptor neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) were detected in samples taken from bone , brain and spinal cord.

Results: treatment with water extract from Epimedium prevented bone mineral loss and reduced femoral bone strength decline associated with osteoporosis. Detection of neuropeptides showed that treatment also affected neuropeptide in the brain/spinal cord/bone axis; specifically, treatment increased brain NPY, bone NPY1R, bone CRLR, bone and spinal cord VIP and VIP2R, bone SP, and brain and spinal cord NK1R.

Conclusion: The effects of osteoporosis can largely be reduced by treatment with Epimedium most likely through a mechanism associated with several neuropeptides involved in regulation of the brain/spinal cord/bone axis. These novel results contribute to existing literature regarding the possible mechanisms of habitual use of Epimedium in the treatment of osteoporosis.



Eruca Sativa Leaves


effect Of Eruca Sativa Leaves On osteoporosis Induced By Phosphoric Acid In Adult Male Rabbits


This study was conducted on the male rabbits to investigate the effect of Eruca sativa on the liver enzyme and lipid profile in damaged liver induced by phosphoric acid. Twenty healthy adult male rabbits were used during the period from 1 to 31 March 2017. Animals were randomly separated into four equal groups (5 rabbits / group) and treated for 30 days as the following: 1st group was a control group (C): rabbits were permitted to ad libitum provide of drinking water, 2nd group (T1): were allowed to drinking water containing 1/10 of lethal dose1530 mg /kg b.w of phosphoric acid, 3rd group (T2): were received 250 mg/ kg b.w aqueous extract of Eruca Sativa orally and 1/10 of lethal dose1530 mg /kg b.w of phosphoric acid, 4th group (T3): were received 250 mg/ kg b.w aqueous extract of Eruca Sativa orally. Fasting samples were collected after 30 days of the experimental to estimate liver enzymes and liver profile.

The results revealed that oral intubation of phosphoric acid for 30 days caused hepatic dysfunction manifested by a significant elevation(P<0.05) in the serum AST(83.00 u/L), ALT(44.20 u/L), cholesterol(74.60 mg/dL), triglyceride(224.80mmol/L), LDL-C (77.90 mg/dL) and VLDL-C (44.96 mg/dL) in the T1.Also phosphoric acid caused a significant decreasing(P<0.05) in HDL-C(31.96 mg/dL), while the animals received Eruca Sativa with phosphoric acid (T2)for 30 days showed a considerable decreasing (P<0.05) in the levels of AST (30.60 u/L), ALT (24.60 u/L),triglyceride(124.80 mmol/L) and cholesterol (71.40 mg/dL).

However the increasing in HDL-C (45.98 mg/dl) was not significant as compared with control but the increasing was significant (P<0.05) with the other groups. The histological section showed the pathological changes in the liver tissue in T1 group while giving Eruca Sativa extract with and without phosphoric acid was effective in modified these changes into semi normal.



Eucommia Leaf


Eucommia Leaf (Ele) prevents Ovx-Induced osteoporosis And Obesity In Rats


The cortex of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver is widely used to treat kidney deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine. Its leaves have recently been reported to have anti-obesity properties in metabolic syndrome-like rat models. Due to a sharp decline in estrogen production, obesity, together with osteoporosis, are common problems in postmenopausal women. In this study, we examined the potential effect of Eucommia leaf extract (ELE) in preventing osteoporosis and obesity induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Forty-six female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: Sham-Cont, OVX-Cont, and four OVX groups administered estradiol and different concentrations of ELE 1.25%, ELE 2.5%, and ELE 5%. treatments were administered after ovariectomy at six weeks of age and continued for 12 weeks. OVX induced a significant decrease in the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar, femora, and tibiae, together with a marked increase in body mass index (BMI). The administration of 5% ELE led to a significant increase in tibial and femoral BMD, as well as significantly increased bone strength parameters when compared with OVX-Cont rats.

According to the suppressed Dpd and increased osteocalcin concentrations in ELE 5% rats, we suggest that varying proportions of bone formation and bone absorption contributed to the enhanced BMD in the femora and tibiae. In addition, significant decreases in body weight, BMI and fat tissue in 5% ELE rats were also observed. These results suggest that ELE may have curative properties for BMD and BMI in OVX rats, and could provide an alternative therapy for the prevention of both postmenopausal osteoporosis and obesity.



Eurycoma Longifolia


effects Of Standardized Quassinoid-Rich Eurycoma Longifolia In A Rat Model Of osteoporosis Due To Testosterone Deficiency: A Densitometric, Morphometric


Background: Eurycoma longifolia (EL) is a well-known aphrodisiac herb for men. Recently, the crude extract of EL was reported to possess anti-osteoporotic activities.

Objective: This study aims to determine the bone protective effects of the standardized quassinoid-rich EL extract in testosterone-deficient rat model.

Methods: Ninety-six intact male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into baseline, sham, orchidectomized, and chemically castrated groups. Chemical castration was performed via subcutaneous injection of degarelix at 2 mg/kg. The orchidectomized and degarelix-induced rats were administered with vehicle, intramuscularly injected with testosterone once a week, or orally supplemented with EL extract at doses of 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg daily for 10 weeks. bone mass, microarchitecture and strength were analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), micro-CT and three-point bending test.

Results: Whole body bone mineral density and femoral bone mineral content significantly increased in testosterone groups (p < 0.05). Micro-CT analysis revealed that trabecular bone volume, number, separation and connectivity density were significantly improved by testosterone administration. However, the structural model index was only improved in degarelix group supplemented with 100 mg/kg EL extract (P < 0.05). The improvement of cortical thickness by EL extract was similar to that of testosterone groups (p < 0.05). Biomechanically, EL extract supplementation was able to improve stiffness, strain and modulus of elasticity in degarelix-induced groups, while stress parameter was significantly improved in orchidectomized groups (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Quassinoid-rich EL extract enables to protect against bone loss due to testosterone deficiency. The protective effect on cortical thickness and biomechanical parameters is comparable to testosterone group.



Forsythiae Fructus


Forsythiae Fructus Inhibits Rankl-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation And prevent bone Loss In Ovx-Induced osteoporosis Rat


In traditional oriental medicine , the fruit of Forsythia suspensa has been used as a nutritional supplement to alleviate inflammation and treat gastrointestinal diseases. However, there is no information available on its beneficial effects on bone . We investigated the beneficial effects of F. suspensa water extract (WFS) on osteoclastogenesis differentiation and bone loss. The microarchitecture of trabecular bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography. Osteoclast differentiation was evaluated based on tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase activity , and bone resorption activity was examined on a bone -like mineral surface.

The mechanism of action of WFS was assessed by evaluating the expression and activation of signaling molecules. Phytochemical constituents were identified and quantitated by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. WFS reduced ovariectomy-induced trabecular bone loss and inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis formation and resorption activity . WFS suppressed RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, a crucial transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis differentiation by decreasing c-Fos protein levels and suppressing the activation of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase. We also identified 12 phytochemicals in WFS including lignans, phenylethanoids, and flavonoids.

Collectively, these results suggest that WFS inhibits osteoclastogenesis differentiation and can potentially be used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis.



Gentiana Macrophylla Pall (Gentianaceae)


Gentiana Macrophylla Pall (Gentianaceae) Exerts protective effects Against osteoporosis In Mice


Purpose: To evaluate the anti-osteoporotic effect of G. macrophylla extract in a mice model. Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) for radical scavenging, nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT) reducing, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays using standard biochemical procedures. The expression of some bone-related genes was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qTR-PCR). Phytochemical analysis was carried out by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Results: The extract exhibited strong antioxidant activity as evident from DPPH, NBT and FRAP data, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 275, 262 and 180 µg/ml, respectively. The antioxidant activity was concentration-dependent. The results showed that the extract restored bone characteristics by suppressing bone resorption through induction of expressions of several bone -associated genes.

The results from phytochemical analyses showed the presence of loganic acid, swertiamarin, sweroside, gentiopicroside, gentesin and isogentesin. Conclusion: These results indicate that the extract may be beneficial in the treatment of osteoporosis.



Ginkgo Biloba


Evidences Of osteoporosis improvement In Wistar Rats Treated With Ginkgo Biloba : A Histomorphometric Study Of Mandible And Femur


This study was aimed at investigating the anti-osteoporotic effects of the extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) in glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis. A significant reduction was observed in the percentage of the bone of the osteoporosis group in both the mandible and femur. The EGb group treated with 28 and 56 mg/Kg showed a significant increase in the percentage of trabecular bone (PTB) of the femur. The percentage of the alveolar bone of the mandible (PAB) had a significant increase with all doses of EGb. The treatment with EGb significantly reversed the loss of the PAB of the mandible and of the PTB of the femur.



Ginseng


Aqueous Ginseng Has A preventive Role In Rankl-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation And Estrogen Deficiency-Induced osteoporosis


Ginseng, a medicinal herb, has a large number of active ingredients including steroidal saponins, commonly known as ginsenosides, which have biological functions including anti-osteoporotic effects . In this study, six ginsenosides were identified in ginseng. Of these saponins, five ginsenosides (Rb1, Rg1, Rc, Re, and Rf) inhibited osteoclastogenesis formation, RANKL-induced tartrate-resistance acid phosphate (TRAP) activity, and formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro. Consistently, an aqueous ginseng extract significantly inhibited osteoclastogenesis differentiation and also regulated expression of calcitonin receptor (Cal-R) and estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) mRNAs.

In vivo, ginseng treatment was shown to have an anti-osteoporotic effect in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Ginseng treatment delayed the increase in body weight associated with ovariectomy, affected bone structure and biochemical properties, and helped regulate bone mineral density and content. The ginseng-treated OVX group also showed decreased osteoclastogenesis number, inhibited osteoclastogenesis activity , and reversal of the reduced serum estradiol level. This study suggests that ginseng prevents postmenopausal bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis differentiation, a process controlled by estrogen.



Greek Thymus Vulgaris


The Ameliorating effect Of The Combined From Greek Thymus Vulgaris And Bee’S Honey On The Hydrocortisone-Induced osteoporosis In Rat bone cells


Many of the functional foods are designed to decrease the risk of chronic diseases like osteoporosis (OP) which is the most common bone disorder affecting millions of people. For the first time, the present study evaluated the effect of the combination between the Greek Thymus vulgaris water extract (TVE) and bee’s honey (BH) against hydrocortisone (HC)-induced OP in vitro. The characterization of TVE, BH, and their combined extract (TV–BH) was examined. In addition, the current work assessed the bone turnover, oxidative stress , and inflammatory markers in bone cells.

The results revealed the presence of considerable amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and flavonols in TVE and BH as well as important minerals and vitamins for the bone health. The TV–BH showed a synergistic (combination index <1) attenuation effect for the HC-induced bone cell damage through significant (p < 0.05) up-regulation of the hydroxyapatite, osteocalcin, phosphorous, and collagen contents. In addition, it significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and hydroxyproline level as well as the oxidative and inflammatory stress. Data also observed the more potent anti-osteoporotic effect of the combined extract than the commonly used bisphosphonate drug (alendronate). In conclusion, the administration of TV–BH improved the glucocorticoid-induced bone damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress and as a result, it might be a promising therapeutic option for the OP disorder.



Green Tea


Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Aqueous alleviate s Postmenopausal osteoporosis In Ovariectomized Rats And prevents Rankl-Induced


Background: Green tea (Camelliasinensis [L.] Kuntze) belongs to the plant family Theaceae and is mainly distributed in East Asia, the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. This plant has been proven to be beneficial to human health, and green tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world after water. However, until now, the effect of green tea aqueous extract (GTE) upon postmenopausal osteoporosis has remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of GTE on estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis and explored the possible mechanisms in vivo and in vitro.

Materials and methods: Ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were orally administered with GTE at doses of 60, 120, and 370 mg kg−1 for 13 consecutive weeks. The biochemical parameters, bone gla protein, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, estrogen, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in blood samples were detected, and histological change in bones was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of GTE on osteoclastogenesis formation were explored in RAW 264.7 cells induced by receptor activation of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL).

Results: The results showed that GTE could increase bone mass and inhibit trabecular bone loss in OVX rats. Furthermore, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis from in vitro experiments also showed that GTE reduced the mRNA expression of osteoclastogenesis -associated genes such as cathepsin K (cath-K), c-Fos, matrix metalloproteinase 9, nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. In addition, GTE caused a reduction in the protein levels of NFATc1, c-Fos, c-src and cath-K.

Conclusion: Evidence from both animal models and in vitro experiments suggested that GTE might effectively ameliorate the symptoms of osteoporosis in OVX rats and inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis -specific gene and protein expression.



Green Tomato


Green Tomato prevents bone Loss In Ovariectomized Rats, A Model Of osteoporosis


Although drug therapies are available for postmenopausal osteoporosis , these drugs are not free of side effects and long-term adherence to them are low. A safe and effective nutritional approach to counter postmenopausal osteoporosis is an important research goal. We fed ovariectomized (OVX) Sprague-Dawley rats a diet supplemented with 1% or 2% green tomato extract (GTE). After 12 weeks, micro-computed tomography scans revealed that GTE supplementation effectively prevent distal femur bone loss. This prevention was due to improved bone formation and suppressed bone resorption as observed by the regulation of osteoblast and osteoclastogenesis activities. GTE supplementation also improved bone formation through Bmp2-Smad 1/5/8-Runx2 signaling, while bone resorption was regulated by the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANKL)/osteoprogeterin (OPG) pathway.

These results suggest that GTE supplementation prevents severe postmenopausal bone loss by maintaining the regulation of bone homeostasis in OVX rats. GTE as a diet supplement might be a potential novel alternative for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.



Hawthorn


The effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in preventing Alveolar bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis


The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone . Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (p<0.05).

The number of inflammatory cells and osteoclasts in the LO group was significantly higher than that of the NL and H groups (p< 0.05). The number of osteoblasts in the LO and H groups was significantly higher than that of the NL group (p<0.05). TOS and OSI levels were significantly reduced in H group compared to LO group (P <0.05) and TAS levels were similar in H and NL group (p< 0.05). Hawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically.



Herba Epimedii


effect on sex hormone functional of s of Herba Epimedii/Fructus Ligustri Lucidi in osteoporosis rats


The combination of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi has been used to treat osteoporosis for almost 50 years by Professor Shizeng Li, a famous doctor of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, it is unclear whether the combination of the effective constituents of the two herbs may have a protective influence on the skeleton. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the combination extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi on rat model of osteoporosis induced by retinoic acid by gavage. With administrations of the combination extracts of the two herbs (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day) via oral gavage for 3 weeks, bone mineral density (BMD), femur histomorphometry, some sex hormones, and sex hormone receptors were measured.

Results showed that the combined extracts could increase BMD, affect bone histomorphometry, coordinate the sex hormones at the level of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, and increase the protein and mRNA expressions of sex hormone receptors. The findings suggested that the combination extracts of Herba Epimedii and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi might be beneficial as an alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.



Humulus Lupulus L.


Humulus Lupulus L. prevents Ovariectomy-Induced osteoporosis In Mice And Regulates Activities Of osteoblasts And Osteoclasts


Objective: To systematically evaluate the protective effects of Humulus lupulus L. extract (HLE) on osteoporosis mice.

Methods: In vivo experiment, a total of 35 12-week-old female ICR mice were equally divided into 5 groups: the sham control group (sham); the ovariectomy with vehicle group (OVX); the OVX with estradiol valerate [EV, 0.2 mg/(kg•d)] the OVX with low- or high-dose HLE groups [HLE, 1 g/(kg•d) and 3 g/(kg•d)], 7 in each group. treatment began 1 week after the ovariectomized surgery and lasted for 12 weeks. bone mass and trabecular bone mircoarchitecture were evaluated by micro computed tomography, and bone turnover markers in serum were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. In vitro experiment, osteoblasts and osteoclasts were treated with HLE at doses of 0, 4, 20 and 100 µg/mL. Biomarkers for bone formation in osteoblasts and bone resorption in osteoclasts were analyzed.

Results: Compared with the OVX group, HLE exerted bone protective effects by the increase of estradiol (P<0.05), the improvement of cancellous bone structure, bone mineral density (P<0.01) and the reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), bone gla-protein, c-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I) and deoxypyridinoline levels (P<0.01 for all). In vitro experiment, compared with the control group, HLE at 20 µg/mL promoted the cell proliferation (P<0.01), and increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin levels in osteoblasts (both P<0.05). HLE at 100 µg/mL increased the osteoblast ic ALP activities, and HLE at all dose enhanced the extracellular matrix mineral ization (both P<0.01). Furthermore, compared with the control group, HLE at 20 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL inhibited osteoclastogenesisic TRAP activity (P<0.01), and reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin K (both P<0.05).

Conclusion: HLE may protect against bone loss, and have potentials in the treatment of osteoporosis.



Isopropanolic


effects Of An Isopropanolic Of Cimicifuga Racemosa On Urinary Crosslinks And Other Parameters Of bone Quality In An Ovariectomized Rat Model Of osteoporosis


A potential bone -sparing effect of Rhizoma actaeae (= cimicifugae) racemosae (black cohosh) was evaluated in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were ovariectomized at 12 weeks of age (body weight, 219-226 g) and placed on a soy-free diet 6 days after surgery. Animals were randomly assigned the following groups: control (n = 10), soy-free diet only; RAL (n = 10), soy-free diet plus raloxifene 3 mg/kg intragastrically; and REM (n = 10), soy-free diet supplemented with an isopropanolic black cohosh extract (Remifemin) with a daily intake of 4500 micro g triterpeneglycosides. Urinary levels of pyridinoline (PYR) and deoxypyridinoline (DPY), specific markers for bone loss, were measured at baseline and at weekly intervals. At the end of the study, the animals were killed and bone loss was determined by volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) measurements and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Mechanical resistance to fracture was also determined. Results demonstrated that an isopropanolic extract of black cohosh significantly diminished the urinary content of PYR and DPY and the morphometric correlates of bone loss associated with ovariectomy in rats.

Reversal of the effects of ovariectomy on bone loss began 2-5 weeks after the start of treatment and continued through at least 7 weeks. Results similar in quality and magnitude were obtained in the group treated with raloxifene, a known selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Because extracts of black cohosh are already recognized as safe and effective in the treatment of certain gynecological disorders, a longer-term clinical trial of this herbal remedy for the treatment of osteoporosis is warranted.



Kudzu


Clinical Observation And Mechanism Study Of The effect Of Dispersible Tablets Of Kudzu Isoflavone On Postmenopausal osteoporosis


Objective To observe the preliminary clinical effect of dispersible tablets of kudzu isoflavone extract on postmenopausal osteoporosis ,and to investigate the molecular mechanism of the treatment of osteoporosis with pharmacology.Methods The randomized control method was used.All patients received a 6-month consecutive oral administration.The clinical test was adopted to preliminarily investigate the clinical effect of the samples on osteoporosis.The ovariectomized rats were used in pharmacodynamical study.Changes in rat serum indicators were observed after a 6-month consecutive oral administration.

Results In clinical observation,the dispersible tablets could improve BMD of the L2-L4 and the femoral neck of patients with osteoporosis obviously.The total effective rate was 82.22%.In pharmacodynamical study,the dispersible tablets could increase the level of rat serum alkaline phosphatase obviously,improve the concentration of serum estradiol(E2),and decrease the concentration of osteocalcin.Conclusion Dispersible tablets of kudzu isoflavone extract have obvious effect on treating osteoporosis



Laminaria japonica Aresch.


Fermented Sea Tangle (Laminaria japonica Aresch) Suppresses RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Scavenging ROS in RAW 264.7 cells


Sea tangle (Laminaria japonica Aresch), a brown alga, has been used for many years as a functional food ingredient in the Asia-Pacific region. In the present study, we investigated the effects of fermented sea tangle extract (FST) on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-stimulate d osteoclastogenesis differentiation, using RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells . FST was found to inhibit the RANKL-stimulated activation of tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase (TRAP) and F-actin ring structure formation. FST also down-regulated the expression of osteoclastogenesis marker genes like TRAP, matrix metalloproteinase-9, cathepsin K and osteoclastogenesis -associated receptor by blocking RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), a master transcription factor.

In addition, FST significantly abolished RANKL-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its transcriptional targets. Hence, it seems likely that FST may have anti-osteoclastogenesis ogenic potential as a result of its ability to inactivate the NF-κB-mediated NFATc1 signaling pathway and by reducing ROS production through activation of the Nrf2 pathway. Although further studies are needed to inquire its efficacy in vivo, FST appears to have potential use as an adjunctive or as a prophylactic treatment for osteoclastogenesisic bone disease.



Lannea Acida A. Rich


Lannea Acida A. Rich.(Anacardiaceae) Ethanol Exhibits Estrogenic effects And prevents bone Loss In An Ovariectomized Rat Model Of osteoporosis


Phytoestrogens have been shown to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis. Lannea acida is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Cameroon to treat infertility, gynaecological complaints, and rheumatism. These uses prompted us to evaluate estrogenic activity of Lannea acida bark ethanolic extract and its antiosteoporotic potential in ovariectomized Wistar rats. In vitro, the E-screen assay was used to assess the ability of L. acida extract to induce MCF-7 cells proliferation. In vivo, a 3-day uterotrophic assay and a 12-week oral treatment in ovariectomized adult rats were carried out to evaluate the ability of L. acida extract to prevent bone mass loss. L. acida extract induced MCF-7 cell proliferation. In vivo, it significantly increased the uterine wet weight, uterine and vaginal epithelial heights, and mammary glands differentiation. At 200 mg/kg, a long-term treatment with the extract prevented body weight gain (p < 0.05) and loss of bone mass and/or density (p < 0.05) induced by ovariectomy.

Also, a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of alkaline phosphatase activity was observed with 50 mg/kg. L. acida extract improved bone microarchitecture and could restore normal bone mineral ization by increasing the inorganic phosphorus and calcium level in bone. These findings provide evidence that Lannea acida is a potential alternative for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis.



Lepidium Meyenii Walp


effect Of Ethanol Of Lepidium Meyenii Walp. On osteoporosis In Ovariectomized Rat


Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) is a cruciferous plant from the Andes of Peru. The root of Maca is traditionally employed for its supposed properties in aphrodisiacs and improving fertility, it also has been widely used to help alleviate the symptoms of menopause. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of Maca on postmenopausal osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: Sham-operated and ovariectomized groups were fed with equivolume of distilled water, and the remaining ovariectomized groups were orally administrated with ethanol extract of Maca at 0.096 and 0.24 g/kg for 28 weeks. The findings derived from the basis of bone mineral density , biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters indicated that higher dose of ethanol extract of Maca was effective in the prevention of estrogen deficient bone loss.



Loquat


Inhibitory effects of the Leaves of Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) on bone mineral density Loss in Ovariectomized Mice and Osteoclast Differentiation


The loquat, Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. (Rosaceae), is a small tree native to Japan and China that is widely cultivated for its succulent fruit. Its leaves are used as an ingredient of a tasty tea called “Biwa cha” in Japanese. The anti-osteoporosis effects of the leaves of loquat in vitro and in vivo have been investigated. After 15 days of feeding normal diet or diet supplemented with 5% loquat leaves, the body weight, viscera weights, and bone mineral density (BMD) of both groups of eight ovariectomized (OVX) mice were compared. The result showed that the loss of BMD in loquat-fed mice was significantly prevented in three parts of the body, especially in the trabecular bone of the head (P < 0.05), abdomen (P < 0.01), and lumbar (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. No hypertrophy in the uterus by the loquat leaves diet was observed.

The effect of the extract (447.25 g) prepared from the dried leaves of loquat (2.36 kg) was further studied on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis differentiation and cell viability. The extract suppressed the differentiation of osteoclasts under 50, 125, 250, and 500 μg/mL. Through bioactivity -guided fractionation, ursolic acid (1) was isolated and inhibited osteoclastogenesis differentiation under 4 and 10 μg/mL. It was concluded that loquat leaves possess the potential to suppress ovariectomy-induced bone mineral density deterioration .



lotus seed and leaves


Polysaccharides isolated from lotus leaves (LLEP) exert anti-osteoporotic effects by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis ogenesis


Nelumbo nucifera, more commonly known as the Indian lotus, is an important plant that has been incorporated into traditional herbal remedies along the years. Even today, lotus leaves are considered reservoirs for bioactive compounds that can be used as nutritional supplements to treat various human diseases. However, despite the wide ranging biological activities of lotus polysaccharides, limited information is available regarding the anti-osteoporotic effects of these substances. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of pectinase-assisted extractable polysaccharides from lotus leaves (LLEP) on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and osteoclastogenesis differentiation in bone marrow-derived macrophages. We found that LLEP markedly inhibited receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. It also revoked RANKL-induced activation of osteoclastogenesis ogenic signals such as the expression of key transcription factors (i.e., c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1), resulting in a decrement in osteoclastogenesis -specific marker gene expressions.

Microcomputed tomography and morphometric analysis revealed that a four-week oral administration of LLEP notably decreased trabecular bone loss. Taken together, our results suggest that LLEP can mitigate estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclastogenesis, which makes it an excellent candidate for combating osteoporosis.



Lycii folium s


effects of Lycii fructus and Lycii folium s on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats


The effects of Lycii fructus and Lycii folium on osteoporosis and serum cholesterol levels were tested in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: Sham group (sham-operated), Control group (OVX, ovariectomized model), LCF group (Ovx+Lycii fructus extract), and LCL group (OVX+Lycium folium extract). After 8 weeks, the OVX ( g), LCF ( g), and LCL ( g) groups showed increased body weight compared with sham group ( g). The levels of serum osteocalcin (OC) also increased in the LCF ( ng/mL) and LCL ( ng/mL) groups compared with the OVX group ( ng/mL). The activities of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased in the LCF ( U/L) and LCL ( ng/mL) groups compared with the OVX group ( U/L). Stereomicroscopy found that the low bone density that developed in the OVX group was significantly reversed in the LCF and LCL groups after 8 weeks. We also obtained molecular-based in vivo evidence that supports a mechanism of action involving novel estrogen receptor () modulator in the uterus.

We found that expression of ER mRNA in the OVX rat uterus was elevated by Lycium chinense. These results suggest that Lycii fructus and Lycii folium administered to rats during 8 weeks after oophorectomy may partially recover postmenopausal osteoporosis or delay the progression of osteoporotic changes.



Lycii Fructus


effects Of The Herbal-Acupuncture With Lycii Fructus At Ki10 (Eumgok) On osteoporosis In Ovariectomized Ddy Mice


Objective & Methods: The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of herbal-acupuncture with Lycii Fructus (LF-HA) at KI10 (Eumgok) on osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX) ddy mice. We carried out several experimental items which were known to be related with osteoporosis.

Results: 1. Tibial BMD was significantly increased in the LF-HA group. 2. Tibial Ca level was significantly increased in the LF-HA group. 3. Osteoclast like cell in tibia was significantly decreased in the LF-HA group. 4. Histological change of tibia was improved, the trabecular bone thickness was significantly increased and the growth plate length was significantly decreased in the LF-HA group.

Conclusion: These results suggest that LF-HA at KI10 has therapeutic effects on osteoporosis especially by way of suppressing osteoclastogenesis cells in ovariectomized ddy mice.



Lycii Radicis Cortex


Anti-Osteoporotic effects Of Kukoamine B Isolated From Lycii Radicis Cortex On osteoblast And Osteoclast cells And Ovariectomized osteoporosis Model Mice


Osteoporosis is an abnormal bone remodeling condition characterized by decreased bone density , which leads to high risks of fracture . Previous study has demonstrated that Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC) extract inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice by enhancing osteoblast differentiation. A bioactive compound, kukoamine B (KB), was identified from fractionation of an LRC extract as a candidate component responsible for an anti-osteoporotic effect . This study investigated the anti-osteoporotic effects of KB using in vitro and in vivo osteoporosis models. KB treatment significantly increased the osteoblastic differentiation and mineral ized nodule formation of osteoblast ic MC3T3-E1 cells , while it significantly decreased the osteoclastogenesis differentiation of primary-cultured monocytes derived from mouse bone marrow. The effects of KB on osteoblast ic and osteoclastogenesisic differentiations under more physiological conditions were also examined. In the co-culture of MC3T3-E1 cells and monocytes, KB promoted osteoblast differentiation but did not affect osteoclastogenesis differentiation. In vivo experiments revealed that KB significantly inhibited OVX-induced bone mineral density loss and restored the impaired bone structural properties in osteoporosis model mice. These results suggest that KB may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of osteoporosis.



Lycium barbarum


Biological activities and potential health benefit effects of polysaccharides isolated from Lycium barbarum L.


Recently, isolation and investigation of novel ingredients with biological activities and health benefit effects from natural resources have attracted a great deal of attention. The fruit of Lycium barbarum L., a well-known Chinese herbal medicine as well as valuable nourishing tonic, has been used historically as antipyretic, anti-inflammation and anti-senile agent for thousands of years. Modern pharmacological experiments have proved that polysaccharide is one of the major ingredients responsible for those biological activities in L. barbarum.

It has been demonstrated that L. barbarum polysaccharides had various important biological activities, such as antioxidant, immunomodulation, antitumor, neuroprotection, radioprotection, anti-diabetes, hepatoprotection, anti-osteoporosis and antifatigue. The purpose of the present review is to summarize previous and current references regarding biological activities as well as potential health benefits of L. barbarum polysaccharides.



Magnoliae Flos


Extract Of Magnoliae Flos Inhibits Ovariectomy-Induced osteoporosis By Blocking Osteoclastogenesis And Reducing Osteoclast-Mediated bone resorption


Bone homeostasis is maintained by a balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Osteoporosis occurs when osteoclastogenesis activity surpasses osteoblast activity. Pro-inflammatory cytokines stimulate osteoclastogenesis differentiation and activity by increasing production of macrophage-colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). In this study, we investigated whether Magnoliae Flos (MF), one of the most commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs for managing rhinitis, sinusitis and headache, could effectively inhibit osteoporosis. In ovariectomized (OVX) mice compared to sham mice, the body weight increased and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5b, calcium, and osteocalcin were significantly elevated.

However, orally administrated MF extract substantially inhibited the increased body weight and serum levels of bone turnover markers, without any evidence of tissue toxicity. MF extract treatment significantly reversed the morphometric parameters of ovariectomy-induced bone loss, including trabecular bone volume, thickness, number, separation, and bone density, to almost the same levels of the sham mice. Furthermore, MF extract reduced the RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis differentiation and bone resorption by inhibiting the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cathepsin K in mouse bone marrow macrophages. MF extract appeared to increase ALP activity in murine osteoblastic cells. Taken together, MF extract may be a beneficial supplement for the blockade of osteoporosis progression, particularly for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis.



Marine Algae


Marine Algae Attenuated osteoporosis In Ovx Mice, Enhanced osteogenesis On Human mesenchymal stem cells And promoted Opg Expression


osteoporosis is an aging disease that weakens bones and increases risks of sudden and unexpected fractures.  Effects of Marine Algae Extract (MAE) on bone formation and resorption remain unknown. We investigated whether MAE could enhance anti-osteoporosis and induce bone formation by using ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model and cultured human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs ). With calcium content and other mineral elements, MAE attenuated osteoporosis by increasing secretions of osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in serum in OVX mice and resulted in the increasing level of the ratio of OPG to RANKL (P < .05, n = 3–5). MAE treatment 800 mg/kg also can reduce the gain of body weight in OVX mice about 10%.

In vitro, MAE enhanced human MSCs osteogenic differentiation and inhibited adipogenesis via upregulation of transcriptional level of OPG (Day 4, P < .05, n = 3; Day 7, P < .001, n = 3). In conclusion, MAE has potential to prevent osteoporosis in vivo and in vitro.



Melons


protective effects of Melons on bone strength , mineral ization, and Metabolism in Rats with Ovariectomy-Induced osteoporosis


A polyphenolic extract from melon (Cucumis melo L.), as a potential source of natural antioxidants, has been reported to have a positive effect on osteoblast activity . In this study, the protective effects of heat-treated melon extract (ECO-A) on bone strength , mineralization, and metabolism were examined in osteoporotic rat models. osteoporosis was induced by ovariectomy (OVX) in female rats and then maintained for 8 weeks, along with the ingestion of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, OVXP) or ECO-A (OVXE) for an additional 4 weeks. At a pre-determined timepoint, bone strengths, as well as bone mineral contents (BMC) and the density (BMD) of femurs and/or lumbar spines extracted from each animal, were measured by a mechanical test and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Moreover, several biochemical markers for bone turnover were analyzed by respective colorimetric assay kits in addition to clinical analyses.

The maximum load and stiffness of femurs from the OVXE group were found to be significantly higher than the other groups. Furthermore, the OVXE group showed significantly higher BMC, BMD, and bone volume than the OVX and OVXP groups, which were comparable to the non-OVX (sham) group. The levels of bone formation and resorption markers in the OVXE group were similar to the sham group, but significantly different from other groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that ECO-A can play potentially positive role s in the protection of bone loss in rats with OVX-induced osteoporosis.



Milk Thistle


Antiosteoclastogenesisic activity Of Milk Thistle After Ovariectomy To Suppress Estrogen Deficiency-Induced osteoporosis


Bone integrity abnormality and imbalance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts are known to result in metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Silymarin-rich milk thistle extract (MTE) and its component silibinin enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts but reduced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity of osteoclasts. The osteoprotective effects of MTE were comparable to those of estrogenic isoflavone. Low-dose combination of MTE and isoflavone had a pharmacological synergy that may be useful for osteogenic activity . This study attempted to reveal the suppressive effects of MTE on bone loss. C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) as a model for postmenopausal osteopenia and orally administered 10 mg/kg MTE or silibinin for 8 weeks.

The sham-operated mice served as estrogen controls. The treatment of ovariectomized mice with nontoxic MTE and silibinin improved femoral bone mineral density and serum receptor activator of nuclear factor- κB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio, an index of osteoclastogenesis ogenic stimulus. In addition, the administration of MTE or silibinin inhibited femoral bone loss induced by ovariectomy and suppressed femoral TRAP activity and cathepsin K induction responsible for osteoclastogenesis ogenesis and bone resorption. Collectively, oral dosage of MTE containing silibinin in the preclinical setting is effective in preventing estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss.



Monascus


effects Of Ethanol Of Monascus On osteoporosis In Ovariectomized Rats


This experiment established the ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis and examined the effect of the oral administration of different dosages of dioscorea, red mold dioscorea (RMD), and soy isoflavones on bone mineral density (BMD). Three months after osteoporosis had been induced and 4 weeks after feeding had begun, the tibia and femur BMD of OVX rats administered RMD showed significant increases compared with that of all other groups of OVX rats. Closer examination using microcomputed tomography also revealed that the RMD-administered rats had denser trabecular bone volume and a higher trabecular number compared to all other rat groups.

Reconstructed 3D imaging indicated increases in cancellous bone mineral content, cancellous bone mineral density, and cortical bone mineral content of the proximal tibia in OVX rats. These findings indicate that administration of monacolin K and phytoestrogen diosgenin could prevent bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency.



Morinda Citrifolia L. Leaf


Morinda Citrifolia L. Leaf Protects Against Cerebral Ischemia And osteoporosis In An In Vivo Experimental Model Of Menopause to


We aimed to determine the protective effects against cerebral ischemia and osteoporosis of Morinda citrifolia extract in experimental menopause. The neuroprotective effect was assessed by giving M. citrifolia leaf extract at doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg BW to the bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats for 7 days. Then, they were occluded in the right middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 90 minutes. The neurological score, brain infarction volume, oxidative stress status, and ERK1/2 and eNOS activities were assessed 24 hours later. M. citrifolia improved neurological score, brain infarction, and brain oxidative stress status in the cortex of OVX rats plus the MCAO. No changes in ERK 1/2 signal pathway and NOS expression were observed in this area. Our data suggested that the neuroprotective effect of the extract might occur partly via the improvement of oxidative stress status in the cortex.

The antiosteoporotic effect in OVX rats was also assessed after an 84-day intervention of M. citrifolia. The serum levels of calcium, osteocalcin, and alkaline phosphatase and osteoblast density in the tibia were increased, but the density of osteoclastogenesis was decreased in OVX rats which received the extract. Therefore, the current data suggested that the extract possessed antiosteoporotic effect by increasing bone formation but decreasing bone resorption.



Morinda officinalis


protective effect of polysaccharides from morinda officinalis on bone loss in ovariectomized rats


In order to examine the effect of polysaccharides from morinda officinalis (MOP) on bone quality of osteoporosis rats. The osteoporosis in rats was induced by ovariectomy, and MOP (100 or 300 mg/kg) was orally administrated once daily. The animals were assessed 30 days after the operation for bone mineral density , serum cytokines level and mineral element concentration. MOP administration in rats resulted in an increase in bone mineral density and mineral element concentration, a decrease in serum cytokines level, which indicated that MOP administration may play an important role in the development of osteoporosis.



mulberry


effect of the mixture of mulberry leaf powder and KGM flour on promoting calcium absorption and bone mineral density in vivo


Background: In this paper, mulberry leaf powder (MLP) and konjac glucomannan (KGM) flour were used as raw materials, and animal experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of a mixture of MLP and KGM on bone density . The femoral bone microstructure of mice and pathological changes were observed by using micro‐computed tomography) and haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining methods, respectively. A three‐point bending test was used to determine the biomechanical properties of the femur.

Results: Results indicated that the calcium content of MLP was high, reaching 16 148.5 mg kg−1, and the total proportion of water‐soluble calcium , calcium pectinate, and calcium carbonate accounted for about 60% of the total calcium content. Serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity was significantly lower, and serum calcium content was significantly higher (P < 0.05), in the MLP + KGM group (KM) than in the low‐calcium control group, whereas no significant difference (P > 0.05) was found for serum phosphorus content. KM had a longer femur length, a higher bone mineral density (BMD) (P > 0.05), and significantly greater femur diameter, dry weight, index and bone calcium content (P < 0.05). However, these parameters were not significantly different from those of the calcium carbonate control group (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: The results indicate that the MLP/KGM mixture can reduce the high rate of bone turnover and the corresponding loss of bone mass caused by calcium deficiency and is thus effective in enhancing bone density . © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.



Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn


Polysaccharides isolated from lotus leaves (LLEP) exert anti-osteoporotic effects by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis ogenesis


Nelumbo nucifera, more commonly known as the Indian lotus, is an important plant that has been incorporated into traditional herbal remedies along the years. Even today, lotus leaves are considered reservoirs for bioactive compounds that can be used as nutritional supplements to treat various human diseases.

However, despite the wide ranging biological activities of lotus polysaccharides, limited information is available regarding the anti-osteoporotic effects of these substances. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of pectinase-assisted extractable polysaccharides from lotus leaves (LLEP) on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and osteoclastogenesis differentiation in bone marrow-derived macrophages. We found that LLEP markedly inhibited receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. It also revoked RANKL-induced activation of osteoclastogenesis ogenic signals such as the expression of key transcription factors (i.e., c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1), resulting in a decrement in osteoclastogenesis -specific marker gene expressions.

Microcomputed tomography and morphometric analysis revealed that a four-week oral administration of LLEP notably decreased trabecular bone loss. Taken together, our results suggest that LLEP can mitigate estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclastogenesis, which makes it an excellent candidate for combating osteoporosis.



Notopterygium Incisum Ting Ex Ht Chang


Anti-osteoporosis effect Of Notopterygium Incisum Ting Ex Ht Chang In Rats


Purpose: To investigate the effect of Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H.T. Chang extract (NICE) on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats.

Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a normal group (control) and five ovariectomy (OVX) subgroups: OVX with vehicle (OVX), OVX with positive control drug alendronate sodium tablets (1.8 mg/kg/week), and OVX with varying NICE doses (45, 90, or 180 mg/kg/day). After rats were subjected to ovariectomy for 4 weeks, alendronate or NICE were administered orally daily for 16 weeks. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the L4 vertebrae and right femurs of all rats was estimated. The serum hormones estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and telopeptides of collagen type I (CTx) levels of rats were detrmined.

Results: The results show that NICE dose-dependently inhibited bone mineral density (BMD) reduction of L4 vertebrae and femurs (p < 0.05).Compared with OVX group, serum E2, FSH and LH levels was significantly increased in osteoporosis rats (p < 0.01), but serum ALP, CTx, and OC concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.05). On the other hand, bone trabeculae in the three NICE groups and nilestriol group were all wider, while the space and connections increased.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that NICE mitigates OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats, and hence can potentially be developed for the management of osteoporosis.



Olive Oil


Impact Of A Functionalized Olive Oil On The Uterus And The bone In A Model Of Postmenopausal osteoporosis


Purpose: The Mediterranean diet rich in fruits, vegetables and olive oil has been related to a lower osteoporosis incidence and accordingly to a reduced fracture risk. These observations might be mediated by the active constituents of extra virgin olive oil, and especially polyphenols. In the context of exploring the features of olive oil active constituents on postmenopausal osteoporosis , an extra virgin olive oil total polyphenolic fraction (TPF) was isolated and its effect on the bone loss attenuation was investigated.

Methods: Female Lewis rats were ovariectomized and fed a diet enriched with a total phenolic extract of extra virgin olive oil in a concentration of 800 mg/kg diet.

Results: Oleocanthal, one compound of the polyphenolic fraction, showed a higher relative estrogen receptor binding affinity to the ERα compared to the ERβ. While the TPF only slightly induced the uterine wet weight (490.7 ± 53.7 vs. 432.7 ± 23, p = 0.058), TPF regulated estrogen response genes in the uterus (progesterone receptor, antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki67, complement C3). Comparing the quantified bone parameters, the oral TPF substitution did not attenuate the ovariectomy-induced bone loss.

Conclusions: The administration of extra virgin olive oil polyphenols regulated uterine estrogen response marker genes in an E2-agonistic manner. The bone loss induced by estrogen ablation was not mitigated by treatment with the polyphenolic extract.



Oryza Sativa L. Japonica


Anthocyanin-Rich From Black Rice (Oryza Sativa L. Japonica) Ameliorates Diabetic osteoporosis In Rats


Diabetic osteoporosis (DOP) is a systemic endocrine-metabolic osteopathy which has the characteristics of bone mineral density (BMD) reduction and bone microstructural destruction. Although anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice (AEBR) was reported to have a beneficial effect on diabetic rats, no studies have been performed on whether black rice anthocyanins are beneficial for diabetic osteoporosis. Therefore, in this study, a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model was established to investigate the protective effect of AEBR on diabetes-induced osteoporosis and its possible mechanism. AEBR at three doses (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg-1 d-1) were administered by oral gavage to diabetic rats for 8 weeks. The blood glucose, BMD, bone histomorphometry parameters, serum bone turnover biomarkers, bone marrow adipocyte numbers, as well as osteoprotegerin (OPG), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX 2), and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B ligand (RANKL) protein expression in bone and serum were detected. The results indicated that AEBR dose-dependently decreased the blood glucose, increased the BMD, and decreased the serum bone turnover markers.

The bone microstructure and osteoclastogenesis numbers in bone tissues returned to normal in the high AEBR dosage group; at the same time, the AEBR dose-dependently suppressed bone marrow adipogenesis. The RUNX 2 as well as the OPG/RANKL ratio in diabetic rats’ bone tissues increased significantly in the AEBR treatment group. Our results indicate that AEBR administration can ameliorate bone loss caused by diabetes; this is mainly attributed to its inhibition of bone turnover, suppression of bone marrow adipogenesis, and up-regulation of RUNX 2 and the OPG/RANKL expression ratio.



Oyster


effects Of Oyster On bone Metabolism In Rats With Glucocorticoid-Induced osteoporosis


Objective: To evaluate the effects of osteoporosis induced by glucocorticoid (GIOP) on bone tissue of rats with experimental periodontitis (EP).

Design: 48 male Wistar rats divided into groups: Naïve, EP, GIOP and GIOP+EP. Rats of GIOP and GIOP+EP groups received 7mg/kg of dexamethasone intramuscularly once a week for 5 weeks. Following, EP and GIOP+EP groups were subjected to ligature-induced periodontitis. Naïve group experienced no manipulation. After 11 days, the animals were euthanized and left maxillae collected for macroscopic, radiographic, micro-tomographic and microscopic analysis of alveolar bone loss (ABL). blood samples were collected for determination of bone -specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) levels and the right femurs were removed for radiographic and biomechanical analysis.

Results: EP caused ABL and reduced BALP levels (p<0,05), but it did not change the architecture or biomechanics of femur, compared to Naïve. GIOP did not cause ABL, but it significantly decreased alveolar bone mineral density (ABMD), bone percentage and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and increased alveolar bone porosity (p<0.05) and significantly reduced BALP serum levels, as well as radiographic density and Young’s module of femur, compared to Naïve. There was a greater ABL in group GIOP+EP when compared to EP (p<0.05). GIOP+EP caused a greater decrease on ABMD, Tb.Th, bone percentage and increased bone porosity (p<0.05) and also presented a significant reduction in BALP levels (p<0.05), in radiographic density and in Young’s module of femur compared to EP (p<0.05).

Conclusions: GIOP can potentiate the destructive effects of EP on alveolar bone and alter the systemic bone loss, by promoting bone resorption and reducing osteoblast activity.



Phyllostachys Edulis


Evaluation Of Silicon From Leaves Of Phyllostachys Edulis For Topical Anti-osteoporosis activity


This study was intended to investigate the assimilation and the effect of BS on bone loss in ovariectomized rats. 100 Adult female SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups. One group was sham operated and ovariectomy rats were performed in other 4 groups: three of which were respectively supplemented with 1.0 mg BS, 1.0 mg estradiol, 150.0 mg Ca/kg BW/day and other rats were model controls. Urine was collected in metabolic cages after 1 month and rats were sacrificed after 3 months. bone density (BMD) was analyzed by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Si concentration was measured by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman background correction.

The results showed that BS supplementation increased significantly the femoral and Lumbar BMD (H1: +8.59%, H2: +9.58%, HT: +9.38%, L: +13.48%, BSG vs MCG, p<0.01). The present results suggest that BS may have a beneficial action on bone health.



plastrum testudinis


Promotion effect of s from plastrum testudinis on alendronate against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in rat spine


Alendronate (ALN) is a key therapeutic used to treat glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP), but may induce severe side effects . We showed earlier that plastrum testudinis extracts (PTE) prevented and treated GIOP in vivo. However, clinically, PTE is seldom used alone. Herein, we reveal the synergistic effect of ALN and PTE can treat GIOP of the rat spine and define the mechanism. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: a vehicle group, a GIOP group, an ALN group, and an ALN+PTE group.

Each group was further divided into two experimental phases, including dexamethasone (DXM) intervention and withdrawal. bone mass, microarchitecture, biomechanics, bone turnover markers, and histomorphology were evaluated. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CTSK and Runx2 were detemined. We found that ALN+PTE improved bone quantity and quality, bone strength, bone turnover; and mitigated histological damage during glucocorticoid intervention and withdrawal. The therapeutic effect was better than that afforded by ALN alone. ALN+PTE reduced CTSK protein expression, promoted Runx2 mRNA and protein expression to varying extents, and more strongly inhibited bone resorption than did ALN alone.

Overall, the synergistic effect mediated by ALN+PTE reversed GIOP during DXM intervention and withdrawal via affecting CTSK and Runx2 expression at mRNA and protein levels.



Polygonatum sibiricum


Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide inhibits osteoporosis by promoting osteoblast formation and blocking osteoclastogenesis ogenesis through Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway


bone homeostasis is maintained by a balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. osteoporosis occurs when osteoclastogenesis activity surpasses osteoblast activity . Our previous studies showed the plant-derived natural polysaccharide (Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide or PSP) had significant anti-ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis effects in vivo, but the mechanisms of PSP’s anti-osteoporosis effect remains unclear. In this study, we assessed PSP’s effect on the generation of osteoblast and osteoclastogenesis in vitro. This study showed that PSP promoted the osteogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs ) without affecting BMPs signaling pathway. This effect was due to the increased nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, resulting in a higher expression of osteoblast-related genes.

Furthermore, the study showed PSP could inhibit the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis ogenesis and exert prophylatic protection against LPS-induced osteolysis in vivo. This effect was also related to the increased nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, resulting in the decreased expression of osteoclastogenesis -related genes.

In conclusion, our results showed that PSP effectively promoted the osteogenic differentiation of mouse BMSCs and suppressed osteoclastogenesis ogenesis; therefore, it could be used to treat osteoporosis.



Pomegranate Peel


Pomegranate Peel prevents bone Loss In A Preclinical Model Of osteoporosis And stimulates osteoblast ic Differentiation In Vitro


The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia.

In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE) could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (-31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice) and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclastogenesis differentiation and bone resorption , as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclastogenesis markers.

In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblast ic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease.



Poncirus Trifoliata


In Vitro And In Vivo Inhibition Of Glucocorticoid‐Induced osteoporosis By The Hexane Of Poncirus Trifoliata


This study was performed to discover a novel herbal therapeutic for effective glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) treatment and further to clarify its molecular mechanism of action. Ethanol or methanol extracts of 68 edible Korean native plants were screened to find effective natural plant sources for the treatment of GIO, and Poncirus trifoliata (L.) (Rutaceae, PT) was selected as a final candidate because of its high inhibitory activity plus its novelty. The hexane extract of PT (PT-H) inhibited apoptotic cell death in dexamethasone-induced osteoblast  cell lines, C3H10T1/2 and MC3T3-E1.

In vivo mouse results indicated that PT-H not only had an inhibitory effect on the bone loss caused by glucocorticoid, but also promoted bone formation. The molecular mechanisms behind the effect of PT-H on GIO were further clarified by screening of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between dexamethasone (Dex)-induced osteoblast cells with or without PT-H treatment.

Finally, it was found that the expression level of AnxA6 in Dex-induced osteoblast cells and prednisolone (PD)-treated GIO-model mice was significantly decreased by PT-H treatment . These findings suggest that PT-H has a strong in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effect on GIO, and decreased expression of AnxA6 may play a key role in this inhibition.



Poria cocos(Schw.)Wolf


Poria Cocos Ameliorates bone Loss in Ovariectomized Mice and Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis In Vitro


Estrogen deprivation in postmenopausal women causes disruption of bone homeostasis, resulting in bone loss and osteoporosis. Conventional therapies can exert adverse effects . The sclerotum of Poria cocos has been used in traditional medicine and as a nutritional supplement and to treat various diseases. However, the effects of P. cocos on the bone remain largely undetermined. In this study, we examined the effects of P. cocos hydroethanolic extract (PC) on osteoclastogenesis differentiation and estrogen-deprivation-induced bone loss in an ovariectomized mouse model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PC-mediated inhibition of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis formation and resorption activity suppressed RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which is a crucial transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis differentiation.

In ovariectomized mice, PC markedly alleviate d trabecular bone loss and reduced the accumulation of lipid droplets in the bone marrow. We additionally identified ten triterpenoid constituents of PC using UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Our results indicate that PC negatively regulated osteoclastogenesis differentiation and function, and can potentially be used to manage postmenopausal osteoporosis.



Psidium Guajava Fruit


effects Of The Hydroalcoholic Of The Psidium Guajava Fruit On osteoporosis prevention In Ovariectomized Rats


Background: Several plants have been shown to possess antioxidant and estrogenic properties that can be useful in postmenopausal bone loss prevention . The present study aimed to investigate the anti-osteoporotic effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of the Psidium guajava (PG) fruit in ovariectomized (OVX) rats.

Methods: Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: a control positive group, a sham-operated group, an OVX group given normal saline (OVX-only group), and 3 treatment groups comprising 2 OVX groups treated orally with 500 and 1000 mg/kg/d of the hydroalcoholic extract of the PG fruit respectively and an OVX group treated with an injection of 0.15 mg/kg of estradiol. The study was conducted over a 12-week period. Samples from the animals’ blood , femoral bones , and uteri were collected for stereological and biochemical analyses. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 19. A P value equal to or less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The results revealed a significant decrease in the levels of calcium , total antioxidant capacity, and phosphorus as well as uterus weight, femoral ash density , femoral volume and weight, and numbers of osteocytes and osteoblasts . Moreover, there was an increase in the levels of alkaline phosphatase and urine deoxypyridinoline together with a rise in the number of osteoclasts in the OVX-only group compared to the control and treatment groups (P≤0.05). The hydroalcoholic extract of the PG fruit increased femoral weight and volume, femoral ash density , numbers of osteocytes and osteoblast s, and trabecular volume of the bones in comparison with the OVX-only group in a dose-dependent manner. No significant difference was observed between the groups in the levels of malondialdehyde and interleukin-6.

Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of the PG fruit prevented OVX-induced bone loss in the rats, with no proliferative effect on atrophic uteri; it should, therefore, be considered for treatment purposes.



Psoralea Corylifolia


Psoralea Corylifolia Ameliorates Experimental osteoporosis In Ovariectomized Rats


We evaluated the protective effect of Psoralea corylifolia L. (PCL) extract on the ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. The biochemical markers of bone turnover, calcium metabolism, and calcium balance were examined. PCL extract (25 mg or 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was orally administrated to OVX rats for 3 months. PCL extract did not alter weight gain or uterus weight in OVX rats. PCL extract significantly increased serum Ca (calcium ) levels (p < 0.05, vs. OVX group) as well as decreased urinary Ca excretion (p < 0.05 vs. OVX group) in OVX rats. The upregulation of serum osteocalcin level by ovariectomy was suppressed by treatment with PCL extract in rats (p < 0.05, vs. OVX group). PCL extract increased bone mineral density at 50 mg/kg body weight/day in OVX rats (p < 0.05, vs. OVX group).

Our results indicate that orally administrated PCL extract can decrease urinary calcium excretion and decrease serum osteocalcin in OVX rats, resulting in positive effects on bone mineral density as well as bone formation. In conclusion, our studies showed that PCL might be a potential candidate for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.



Psoralea corylifolia Linn.


Psoralea Corylifolia Ameliorates Experimental osteoporosis In Ovariectomized Rats


We evaluated the protective effect of Psoralea corylifolia L. (PCL) extract on the ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. The biochemical markers of bone turnover, calcium metabolism, and calcium balance were examined. PCL extract (25 mg or 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was orally administrated to OVX rats for 3 months. PCL extract did not alter weight gain or uterus weight in OVX rats. PCL extract significantly increased serum Ca (calcium ) levels (p < 0.05, vs. OVX group) as well as decreased urinary Ca excretion (p < 0.05 vs. OVX group) in OVX rats. The upregulation of serum osteocalcin level by ovariectomy was suppressed by treatment with PCL extract in rats (p < 0.05, vs. OVX group). PCL extract increased bone mineral density at 50 mg/kg body weight/day in OVX rats (p < 0.05, vs. OVX group).

Our results indicate that orally administrated PCL extract can decrease urinary calcium excretion and decrease serum osteocalcin in OVX rats, resulting in positive effects on bone mineral density as well as bone formation. In conclusion, our studies showed that PCL might be a potential candidate for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.



Pu-Erh Tea


Pu-Erh Tea Ameliorates Ovariectomy-Induced osteoporosis In Rats And Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis In Vitro


Background and Objective: Tea drinking is associated with positive effects on bone health and may protect against osteoporosis , especially in elderly women. Pu-erh tea has many beneficial effects on human health; however, whether Pu-erh tea has anti-osteoporotic potential remains unclear. Thus, we investigated the effects of Pu-erh tea extract (PTE) on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats and on osteoclastogenesis ogenesis in vitro.

Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: the sham, model, and Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao capsule (XLGB) groups, and the low-, medium-, and high-dose PTE groups. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were used as an animal model of osteoporosis. The animals were intragastrically administered distilled water, XLGB, or different concentrations of PTE for 13 weeks. Body weight, blood biochemical indicators, relative organ coefficients, femoral bone mineral density (BMD), bone biomechanical properties, and bone microarchitecture were examined and analyzed. Additionally, the in vitro effects of PTE on osteoclastogenesisic activities were investigated using the RAW 264.7 cell line as an osteoclastogenesis differentiation model. The effects of PTE on osteoclastogenesis differentiation and the expression of osteoclastogenesis -specific genes and proteins were determined.

Results: PTE reduced OVX-induced body weight gain after 6 weeks of treatment , and the high-dose exerted a significant effect . High-dose PTE significantly ameliorated OVX-induced estradiol (E2) deficiency. PTE treatment maintained calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and improved other blood biochemical parameters to various degrees. In addition, PTE treatment improved organ coefficients of the femur, uterus, and vagina and improved femoral BMD and bone biomechanical properties. PTE treatment strikingly ameliorated bone microarchitecture. Moreover, in the in vitro studies, osteoclastogenesis differentiation using the differentiation cell model was significantly inhibited by PTE without cytotoxic effects . Additionally, PTE efficaciously suppressed the expression of key osteoclastogenesis -specific genes and proteins.

Conclusion: PTE can ameliorate ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats and suppress osteoclastogenesis ogenesis in vitro.



Pueraria Lobata


Anti-osteoporosis effect Of The Standard Of Pueraria Lobata


osteoporosis is a major health hazard and is a disease of old age; it is a silent epidemic affecting more than 200 million people worldwide in recent years. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research many plants and their compounds have been shown to possess antiosteoporosis activity . This paper reviews the medicinal plants displaying antiosteoporosis properties including their origin, active constituents, and pharmacological data. The plants reported here are the ones which are commonly used in traditional medical systems and have demonstrated clinical effectiveness against osteoporosis.

Although many plants have the potential to prevent and treat osteoporosis, so far, only a fraction of these plants have been thoroughly investigated for their physiological and pharmacological properties including their mechanism of action. An attempt should be made to highlight plant species with possible antiosteoporosis properties and they should be investigated further to help with future drug development for treating this disease.



pumpkin seed


Supplementation with pumpkin seed oil improves plasma lipid profile and cardiovascular outcomes of female non‐ovariectomized and ovariectomized Sprague‐Dawley rats


Pumpkin (Cucurbita species) seed oil (PSO) is a rich source of phytoestrogens and the aim of this study was to examine the effect of PSO supplementation on the total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‐C), triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‐C), systolic and diastolic blood pressure in non‐ovariectomized and ovariectomized Sprague‐Dawley rats.

Female rats weighing 220–300 g were divided into non‐ovariectomized rats for supplementation with corn oil (control CO; n = 6) or PSO (control PSO; n = 5) and ovariectomized rats for supplementation with corn oil (OVX/CO; n = 6) or PSO (OVX/PSO; n = 5) for 5 days per week for 12 weeks (corn oil 40 mg/kg or PSO 40 mg/kg given orally). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured weekly. blood was collected at the end of the period for plasma lipid assays. Control PSO had lower TC, LDL–C, triglycerides and higher HDL‐C than the control CO. The OVX/CO had higher TC, LDL–C, triglycerides and lower HDL‐C than the control CO and these changes were prevented in the OVX/PSO rats. PSO supplementation also resulted in lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures in both non‐ovariectomized and ovariectomized rats. It is concluded that PSO supplementation can prevent changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure associated with inadequate oestrogen availability.



Punica Granatum leaf


Antiosteoporotic activity Of Ethanolic Leaf Of Punica Granatum In Glucocorticoid Induced Osteoporotic Rats


Objective: To evaluate the anti-osteoporotic activity of ethanolic extract of Punica granatum in glucocorticoid induced osteoporotic rat model at three different dose levels of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg per day.

Materials and methods: Healthy female albino rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group I was normal control and all other groups were glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis. Group II was fed with saline and served as methyl prednisolone (0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) induced osteoporotic control. Groups III–VI were orally treated with alendronate (200 μg/kg, p.o.) and ethanolic leaves extract of Punica granatum (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) respectively for 90 days.

Results: The present findings assessed on Punica granatum shows significant (P<0.001) increases in femur length, weight and density , significant (P<0.001) increases in serum calcium, phosphorus and reduction in alkaline phosphatase, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, osteocalcin whereas urine calcium, creatinine and phosphorous levels were significant (P<0.001) decreases.

Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Punica granatum leaves shows antiosteoporotic activity in glucocorticoid induced osteoporotic rats in dose depended manner.



Qianggu Soft


Clinical And Experimental Study Of Qianggu Soft In treatment Of Type Ⅰ Primary osteoporosis


Background: Qianggu Capsule, a Chinese patent medicine , has been widely applied in the clinical practice of primary osteoporosis (POP) in recent years. This study aims to summarize the effectiveness and safety of Qianggu Capsule in treating POP.

Methods: We searched seven electronic databases, all searches ended in 30 September, 2015. All randomised controlled trials comparing the efficacy of Qianggu Capsule treatment with no treatment , placebo or conventional therapy for POP were included. Combined therapies of Qianggu Capsule were also included. Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess methodological quality of primary studies. Revman 5.2.0 software was used for data analysis.

Results: Ten trials were enrolled. The combined effect showed that Qianggu Capsule plus Caltrate D was better than Caltrate D on lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) (MD = 0.05 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.02–0.07; P = 0.0004), femoral neck BMD (MD = 0.03 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.01–0.05; P = 0.001), femoral great trochanter BMD (MD = 0.04 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.03–0.06; P < 0.001). Meta-analysis exhibited a significant antiosteoporosis effect of Qianggu Capsule on femoral neck BMD (MD = 0.03 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.01–0.05; P = 0.003) and femoral trochanteric BMD (MD = 0.07 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.02–0.12; P = 0.006) compared with α-D3 capsule. However, the methodological quality of included studies was low. Constipation and dry mouth were the most common adverse drug reactions of Qianggu Capsule. Finally the evidence level was evaluated to be low or very low.

Conclusions: The effect of Qianggu Capsule for POP was supported in improving BMD. Due to the methodological drawbacks of the included studies, the conclusions should be treated with caution for future research.



Quassinoid-Rich Eurycoma Longifolia


The effects Of Quassinoid-Rich Eurycoma Longifolia On bone Turnover And Histomorphometry Indices In The Androgen-Deficient osteoporosis Rat Model


Male osteoporosis is associated with higher rates of disability and mortality. Hence the search for suitable intervention and treatment to prevent the degeneration of skeletal health in men is necessary. Eurycoma longifolia (EL), a traditional plant with aphrodisiac potential may be used to treat and prevent male osteoporosis. The skeletal protective effect of quassinoid-rich EL extract, which has a high content of eurycomanone, has not been studied. This study aimed to determine whether EL could prevent skeletal deterioration s in gonadal hormone-deficient male rats. Ninety-six male Sprague⁻Dawley rats were randomly assigned to baseline, sham-operated (Sham), orchidectomised or chemically castrated groups. Chemical castration was achieved via subcutaneous injection of degarelix at 2 mg/kg.

The orchidectomised and degarelix-castrated rats were then divided into negative control groups (ORX, DGX), testosterone-treated groups (intramuscular injection at 7 mg/kg weekly) (ORX + TES, DGX + TES), and EL-supplemented groups receiving daily oral gavages at doses of 25 mg/kg (ORX + EL25, DGX + EL25), 50 mg/kg (ORX + EL50, DGX + EL50), and 100 mg/kg (ORX + EL100, DGX + EL100). Following 10 weeks of treatment , the rats were euthanized and their blood and femora were collected. bone biochemical markers, serum testosterone, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa &beta;-ligand (RANKL) levels and histomorphometric indices were evaluated. Quassinoid-rich EL supplementation was found to reduce degenerative changes of trabecular structure by improving bone volume, trabecular number, and separation.

A reduction in the percentage of osteoclastogenesis and increase in percentage of osteoblast on bone surface were also seen with EL supplementation. Dynamic histomorphometric analysis showed that the single-labeled surface was significantly decreased while the double-labeled surface was significantly increased with EL supplementations. There was a marginal but significant increase in serum testosterone levels in the ORX + EL25, DGX + EL50, and DGX + EL100 groups compared to their negative control groups. Quassinoid-rich EL extract was effective in reducing skeletal deterioration s in the androgen-deficient osteoporosis rat model.



Radix Astragali


Aqueous From Radix Astragali Ameliorates osteoporosis Subsequent To Spinal Cord Injury


Introduction: Radix Astragali (RA) has been used for herbal formulations in the treatment of bone degradation in traditional Chinese medicine .

Methods: The effects of aqueous extract from Radix Astragali (RA) on bone loss in spinal cord-injured rats were investigated in the present study. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group (rats with sham operation); osteoporosis group (Op group, rats with spinal cord sectioned); L group (spinal cord-injured rats treated with low-dose extract); and H group (spinal cordinjured rats treated with high-dose extract).

Results: Op group showed a significant decrease in bone mineral density and biomechanical properties versus control group. While RA extract could significantly reverse this bone degeneration trend, and the effects of high dose was better than low dose, which means such effects maybe dose dependent.

Conclusion: We conclude that RA decoction was able to initiate a positive effect on bone disorder after spinal cord injury, and RA is a hopefully source of new drugs for osteoporosis.



radix paeoniae rubra (unpeeled)


Radix Paeoniae Rubra stimulates osteoclastogenesis differentiation by activation of the NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways


Background: Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR), a traditional Chinese herb, has anti-inflammatory and immuno-regulatory properties. This study explored the effects of RPR on stimulation of osteoclastogenesis differentiation in RAW264.7 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)s.

Methods: The mature osteoclasts were measured by bone resorption assays and TRAP staining. JNK, ERK, p38 and NF-κB inhibitors were used applied in order to verify their contribution in RPR-induced osteoclastogenesis differentiation. The NF-κB and MAPK pathways were evaluated by western blotting, RT-PCR and luciferase assay.

Results: RPR induced osteoclastogenesis differentiation in a dose-dependent manner and induced the resorption activity of osteoclasts differentiation of RAW264.7 cells and PBMCs. Western blotting showed that RPR treatment induced phosphorylation of JNK, ERK, and p38 in RAW 264.7 cells . treatment of JNK, ERK, and p38 MAP kinase inhibitors verified the contribution of JNK, ERK and p38. RPR treatment induced c-Fos and NFATc1 protein expression; NF-κB inhibitor treatment and luciferase assay verified the contribution of the NF-κB pathway.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated the interesting effect , in which RPR stimulate d osteoclastogenesis differentiation in murine RAW264.7 cells and human monocytes.



Red Yeast Rice


Anti-osteoporosis activity Of Red Yeast Rice On Ovariectomy-Induced bone Loss In Rats


osteoporosis is the most common bone disease, affecting millions of people worldwide and leading to significant morbidity and high costs. Monacolin K, an extract of red yeast rice (RYR, Hongqu), plays important roles in the management of dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Our study aimed to investigate the protective effect of monacolin K on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats. Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham-operated and five ovariectomized (OVX) groups: OVX with vehicle, OVX with fluvastatin, and OVX with RYR extract of three graded doses. bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical markers, and cell viability were analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Gene expression was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification and western blot. Our results showed that administration of RYR extract markedly increased the bone mineral density in OVX rats.

Moreover, RYR extract decreased the levels of bone turnover markers, including osteocalcin and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase activity . The MMT assay revealed that RYR extract treatment significantly improved the osteoblast viabilities in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). At the molecular level, we further demonstrated that RYR extract enhanced the expression of Bmp2 and Bmp4 both at the mRNA and protein levels. Collectively, these data suggested RYR extract could protect against osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats, most likely through activation of BMP2/4 expression.



Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaetn.) Libosch. ex Fisch. et Mey.


Dried Root of Rehmannia glutinosa prevents bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats


Dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa is a kidney-tonifying herbal medicine with a long history of safe use in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of joint diseases. This study was conducted to investigate prevention of bone loss by a standardized dried root of R. glutinosa in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. The OVX groups were divided into five groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (E2 10 µg/kg, once daily, i.p) and dried root of R. glutinosa extracts (DRGE 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o) for eight weeks. We measured the body, organs, and uterus weights, and femur and lumbar vertebrae bone mineral density (BMD), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), estradiol levels. The treatments with DRGE 300 mg/kg significantly inhibited BMD decrease in the femur and lumbar (17.5% and 16.4%, p < 0.05, respectively) by OVX without affecting the body, organs, and uterus weights. Also, serum ALP level in the DRGE 300 mg/kg treated group was significantly decreased , but the estradiol level did not change in serum of the DRGE 300 mg/kg treated group.

These results show that DRGE is able to prevent OVX-induced bone loss without influencing hormones such as estrogen.



Rehmanniae Radix Preparata


Metabolomics Profiling Reveals Rehmanniae Radix Preparata Protects Against Glucocorticoid-Induced osteoporosis Mainly Via Intervening Steroid Hormone


Rehmanniae Radix Preparata (RR), the dry rhizome of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch., is a traditional herbal medicine for improving the liver and kidney function. Ample clinical and pharmacological experiments show that RR can prevent post-menopausal osteoporosis and senile osteoporosis. In the present study, in vivo and in vitro experiments, as well as a UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based metabolomics study, were used to explore the preventing effect of RR on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) and its underlying mechanisms. As a result, RR significantly enhanced bone mineral density (BMD), improved the micro-architecture of trabecular bone , and intervened in biochemical markers of bone metabolism in dexamethasone (DEX)-treated rats. For the in vitro experiment, RR increased the cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity , enhanced the extracellular matrix mineral ization level, and improved the expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteopontin (OPN) in DEX-injured osteoblasts.

For the metabolomics study, a total of 27 differential metabolites were detected in the DEX group vs. the control group, of which 10 were significantly reversed after RR treatment . These metabolites were majorly involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis, sex steroids regulation, and amino acid metabolism. By metabolic pathway and Western blotting analysis, it was further ascertained that RR protected against DEX-induced bone loss, mainly via interfering steroid hormone biosynthesis, as evidenced by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) and aromatase (CYP19A1), and the down-regulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD11B1). Collectively, these results indicated that RR had a notable preventing effect on GIOP, and the action mechanism might be related to steroid hormone biosynthesis.



Rhizoma Drynariae


protective effect Of Rhizoma Drynariae On osteoporosis In Ovariectomized Rat Model


Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic effect of Rhizoma Drynariae extract (RDE) on ovariectomyinduced osteoporosis in rats.

Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a sham-operated group (control) and five ovariectomy (OVX) subgroups: OVX with vehicle (OVX), OVX with 17ß-estradiol (E2, 25 μg/kg/day), and OVX with RDE doses (40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/day). Daily oral administration of E2 or RDE started 4 weeks after OVX and lasted for 16 weeks. The bone mineral density (BMD) of the L4 vertebrae and right femurs was estimated. The length of each femur was measured with a micrometer gauge, and the center of the diaphysis determined. Three representatives L4 vertebrae were selected to evaluate the trabecular microarchitecture. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urinary calcium (U-Ca),
urinary phosphorus (U-P), urinary creatinine (Cr) and osteocalcin (OC) levels were measured.

Results: The study showed that high-dose of RDE significantly inhibited the bone mineral density (BMD) reduction of L4 vertebrae (0.20 ± 0.02 g/cm3, p < 0.05) and femurs (0.18 ± 0.02 g/cm3, p < 0.05) caused by OVX and prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture (p < 0.05), which were accompanied by a significant decrease in skeletal remodeling (p < 0.05) as evidenced by the lower
levels of bone turnover markers. High-dose of RDE improved morphometric parameters, namely, Tb-N (3.8 ± 0.2 mm, p < 0.05), Tb-Th (0.083 ± 0.011 mm, p < 0.05) and Tb-Sp (0.19 ± 0.01 mm, p < 0.05) in L4 vertebrae significantly . The present study indicates that the administration of RDE at higher doses over a 16-week period can prevent OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats without hyperplastic effects on the uterus.

Conclusion: Thus, RDE is a potential natural alternative for postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment in elderly women.



Rosae Laevigatae


effects Of Herbal-Acupuncture With Rosae Laevigatae Fructus At Ki10 (Umgok) On osteoporosis In Ovariectomized Mice


Objective & Methods: The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of herbal-acupuncture with Rosae Laevigatae Fructus extact(RLF-HA) at KI10(Umgok) on osteoporosis in ovariectomized( OVX) ddy mice. We carried out several experimental items to analyze the changes in body weight, uterine weight, uterus index, tibial length, the ash bone weight, tibial BMD, serum ALP, serum osteocalcin, serum Ca, and the levels of Ca, P, Ca/P ratio in tibia, and we performed histological and histomorphological analysis as well.

Results: 1. Herbal-acupuncture with Rosae Laevigatae Fructus at KI10(Umgok) and saline injection at KI10(Umgok) significantly inhibited the reduction of tibial calcium level in ovariectomized mice. 2. Herbal-acupuncture with Rosae Laevigatae Fructus at KI10(Umgok) significantly inhibited the increase of tibial osteoclastogenesis cells in ovariectomized mice. 3. Herbal-acupuncture with Rosae Laevigatae Fructus at KI10(Umgok) significantly inhibited the reduction of tibial trabecular bone thickness(TBT) in ovariectomized mice. 4. Herbal-acupuncture with Rosae Laevigatae Fructus at KI10(Umgok) significantly inhibited the overgrowth of tibial growth plate length(GPL) in ovariectomized mice.

Conclusion: These results suggested that herbal-acupuncture with Rosae Laevigatae Fructus at KI10(Umgok) has a therapeutic effect on osteoporosis, and to be put to practical use in the future osteoporosis clinic.



Rubiacordifoliain Ovariectomized


Evaluation Of Antiosteoporotic activity Of Root Of Rubiacordifoliain Ovariectomized Rats


The present study was carried out to investigate the antiosteoporotic activity of ethanolic extract from the root of Rubia cordifolia (RC) in bilateral-overiectomy induced osteoporotic rats. The study was performed on female Sprague-dawley rats. Two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of RC root were evaluated by acute oral toxicity test. Raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg) was used as a reference standard. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 per group. Bilateral-overiectomy was performed for all the rats except for the rats from group-1, which were sham-operated and served as a basal control. Rats from group-2 were served as an OVX-control and received vehicle. Group-3 was administered with raloxifene (5.4 mg/kg, p.o.) and served as a standard control. Group-4 and 5 were administered with suspension of ethanolic root extract of RC (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) respectively. treatment was given for 90 days starting from the 15th day after surgery. At the end of the study, the blood samples from all the groups were withdrawn to assess biochemical parameters.

The animals were then sacrificed and femur bones were isolated for biomechanical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. Increased biomechanical strength , calcium absorption, minimal osteoclastogenesisic activity and enhanced osteoblast ic activity were observed in the rats treated with ethanolic extract of RC root. SEM data adds a confirmatory note to the findings. All these results demonstrate significantly antiosteoporotic activity of RC extract. Further studies are required to determine the active components that are responsible for its antiosteoporotic activity .


Rubus coreanus s


effect of Rubus coreanus s on diabetic osteoporosis by simultaneous regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts


Objective: Diabetes mellitus has been known to be associated with a high risk of osteoporosis. Rubus coreanus Miquel, a traditional Asian herbal medicine, has various uses, such as antiobesity and antiosteoporosis treatment , among others. We investigated the effect of R. coreanus extracts on diabetic osteoporosis.

Methods: Rats were not treated, or treated with streptozotocin or R. coreanus, or ovariectomized, in various combinations. After 6 weeks of treatment , the rats were killed, and serum biochemistry, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed. In addition, in vitro studies were performed in MC3T3-E1 and RAW 264.7 cells .

Results: Rats treated using R. coreanus showed significant improvement in trabecular bone histopathology. Increased expression of osteocalcin was observed in rats treated with streptozotocin and R. coreanus, whether ovariectomized or not. In addition, the expression levels of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 and receptor activator for nuclear factor κβ ligand were increased in rats that were ovariectomized and treated with streptozotocin and R. coreanus but decreased in those treated with streptozotocin and R. coreanus alone. These results indicate that the antiosteoporotic effect of R. coreanus in postmenopausal diabetic osteoporosis is attributable to the cannabinoid receptor-dependent maximal up-regulation of osteoblastogenesis .

Conclusions: The present study shows that R. coreanus may rescue diabetic osteoporotic bone loss by simultaneous alteration of activation in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Furthermore, these effects may be partially influenced by the up-regulation of the endocannabinoid system. In conclusion, dietary R. coreanus may be of use in improving the conditions of diabetic osteoporosis.



Ruscus Aculeatus


bone protective effects Of Purified From Ruscus Aculeatus On Ovariectomy-Induced osteoporosis In Rats


Ruscus aculeatus is a source of steroidal saponins that could mimic sex hormones and could help alleviate the risk of fracture in osteoporotic patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro effects of an extract from R. aculeatus (ERA) on the proliferation of human osteoblast -like SaOS-2 cell line and to investigate the effects of the ERA administered orally for 10 weeks at three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) on the bone structure of rats with estrogen deficiency induced by bilateral ovariectomy. bone turnover markers, hormones, histopathological and radiological disturbances were evidenced in the ovariectomized rats.

ERA recovered most of the affected parameters in a dose-dependent manner similar to diosgenin and alendronate used as positive comparators. The main active compounds of ERA (ruscogenin and neoruscogenin) were docked into the Vit. D receptor and oestrogen receptors alpha and beta, and stable complexes were found with binding scores equal to those of estradiol and diosgenin. The findings of this study provide for the first time an insight into the effects of ERA on bone structure and suggest that ERA could be developed as a potential candidate for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporotic complications.



Salvadora Persica Sticks


Antiosteoporotic activity Of Salvadora Persica Sticks In An Estrogen Deficient Model Of osteoporosis


Objectives: The effect of Salvadora persica sticks on prevention of tooth decay is well established, but the effect of S. persica stick extract (SPE) on the prevention /treatment of osteoporosis has not been studied. The purpose of this study is to provide baseline information of the effectiveness of SPE on ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis.

Methods: SPE was administered at 50, 150, and 300 mg/d orally to OVX rats for 16 weeks. Serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, and phosphorus, and urinary deoxypyridinoline, calcium, and phosphorus were measured. bone mineral density (BMD), 3-point bending test, and histomorphometric characteristics of the femoral bone were also examined.

Results: SPE at doses of 150 and 300 mg/d, but not 50 mg/d, significantly prevented bone loss in OVX rats as proved by decreased biochemical markers of bone resorption and increased BMD and biomechanical indices of the femoral bone.

Conclusions: This study confirms a dose-dependent protective action of SPE on rat OVX model of osteoporosis. This effect needs further investigation at the molecular and clinical levels to provide a natural and cost-effective alternative for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis.



Salvia Miltiorrhiza


effects Of Salvia Miltiorrhiza With Supplemental Liquefied calcium On osteoporosis In calcium -Deficient Ovariectomized Mice


Background: Extracts from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge have been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat coronary heart disease, chronic renal failure, atherosclerosis, myocardial infraction, angina pectoris, myocardial ischemia, dysmenorrheal, neurasthenic insomnia, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-RANK signal effect of the combination of S.miltiorrhiza Bunge (SME) and liquefied calcium (LCa) supplement with ovariectomized (OVX-SML) mice, a osteoporosis animal model. Results were compared to 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment .

Methods: A total of 70 female ICR strain mice (7 weeks) were randomly divided into 10 groups with 7 mice in each group as follows: (1) sham-operated control mice (sham) received daily oral phosphate-buffered-saline (PBS) of equal volumes through oral administration. (2) OVX mice received a daily oral administration of PBS (OVX). (3) OVX mice treated daily with 50 mg/kg b.w./ day of SME (4) with 100 mg/kg b.w./day of SME or (5) with 200 mg/kg b.w./day of SME via oral administration. (6) OVX mice treated daily with 50 mg/kg b.w./day of SML (7) with 100 mg/kg b.w./day of SML or (8) with 200 mg/kg b.w./day of SML via oral administration. (9) OVX mice treated daily with 10 ml/kg b.w./day of LCa (10) OVX mice received i.p. injections of 17β-estradiol (E2) (0.1 mg/kg b.w./day) three times per week for 12 weeks.

Results: micro-CT analysis revealed that oral administration of SML inhibited tibial bone loss, sustained trabecular bone state, and ameliorated bone biochemical markers. In addition, SML administration compared to SEM and LCa reduced serum levels of RANKL, osteocalcin and BALP through increased serum levels of OPG and E2 in OVX mice. SML also had more beneficial effects on protection of estrogen-dependent bone loss through blocking expression of TRAF6 and NFTAc1 and produces cathepsin K and calcitonin receptor to develop osteoclastogenesis differentiation.

Conclusion: These data suggest that S. miltiorrhiza Bunge combined with liquefied calcium supplement has an inhibitory activity in OVX mice. This result implies the possibility of a pharmacological intervention specifically directed toward a disease such as osteoporosis where decreased bone strength increases the risk of a broken bone .



Sambucus Williamsii Hance


Study Of The Mechanisms By Which Sambucus Williamsii Hance Exert protective effects Against Ovariectomy-Induced osteoporosis In Vivo


The purpose of this study is to investigate the dose-dependent effects of SWH on bone properties and the mechanism involved in mediating the osteoprotective actions of SWH. The results indicated that SWH could improve bone properties by inhibiting the process of bone resorption and stimulating the process of bone formation.

Introduction: Our previous study showed that Sambucus williamsii HANCE (SWH) improved trabecular bone mass and cortical bone strength in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dose-dependent effects of SWH on bone properties and the mechanism involved in mediating the osteoprotective actions of SWH.

Methods: Three-month-old C57BL/6J mice were fed a phytoestrogen-free diet and subjected to either ovariectomy or sham operation. OVX mice were treated with genistein (50 mg/kg), or a low (200 mg/kg), medium (500 mg/kg), or high (1,000 mg/kg) dose of SWH extract.

Results: SWH could dose-dependently decrease urinary Ca excretion and increase serum Ca level in OVX mice. It could increase tibial bone mineral density and exert beneficial effects on the microarchitecture of trabecular bone in the OVX mice. SWH suppressed the ovariectomy-induced expression of Cbfa1 mRNA and cathepsin K mRNA and enhanced the ratio of OPG/RANKL mRNA expression in the tibia. In vitro study showed that SWH dramatically reduced the number of TRAP-positive cells in RANKL-induced RAW 264.7 cells .

Conclusions: The present study indicated that SWH could improve bone properties by inhibiting the process of bone resorption and stimulating the process of bone formation.



Sargassum Tenerrimum Algae


Histopathological Assesment Of Sargassum Tenerrimum Algae effect On The Mice bone Tissue With osteoporosis


Background: Osteoporosis is a silent disease which is causing death of significant population due to bone fractures. Use of natural supplements is considered with respect to side effects of chemical drugs. In this study, the effect of sargassum algae on osteoporosis disease was investigated.

Methods: The study was done on 80 mice heads of NMRI race. After osteoporosis induction, the mice were divided into the control, sham, positive control, experimental and negative control groups. The therapeutic dose of positive control group was 125 mg/kg/day of calcium and 0. 025 μ g/week/mice vitamin D and that of in the experimental group was 10mg/100g (bw)/day Sargassum algae extract that was fed for 28 days to each group. Finally, histopathology sections were studied.

Results: The negative control group had more degradation in lamellar bone (bone blades) than other groups (P<0. 01). The experimental group had less degradation compared to negative control group and also, the number of observed osteoblasts in the periosteum had a significant increase than negative control group (P<0. 01).

Conclusion: Our study showed that Sargassum tenerrimum algae has meaningful effect on osteoporosis and since it includes active ingredients with absorbable calcium ; it can have the ability of osteoporosis inhibition in several ways. Also, it was shown that algae have unique effect in ossification process and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis production via activation of Smad and BMP path, RANK protein inhibition and TNFα .



Saururus Chinensis


Antiosteoporotic activity Of Saururus Chinensis In Ovariectomized Rats


Recent studies suggest that phytoestrogens may exert a protective effect against osteoporosis. This study examined whether treatment with phytoestrogen extracts from Saururus chinensis (SC) exerted a preventive effect on estrogen-deficiency-induced osteoporosis. Six- to seven-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into either a sham-operated group or one of three ovariectomy (OVX) subgroups: OVX treated with vehicle, OVX with alendronate, and OVX with SC extract (SC). Rats began receiving treatment 4 weeks before the OVX treatment and continued receiving treatment for an additional 10 weeks after OVX (for a combined total of 14 weeks). The results showed that the SC treatment prevented loss of femur bone mineral density after OVX, as determined by a significant decrease in the levels of serum bone turnover markers osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase as well as urinary deoxypyridinoline.

Micro-computed tomography analysis showed that the SC treatment significantly prevented decreases in bone volume/tissue volume, trabecular number and trabecular thickness, while also preventing an increase in trabecular separation. It was concluded that SC treatment could prevent OVX-induced loss of bone mass and deterioration in trabecular microarchitecture by suppressing bone turnover, thereby maintaining bone structural integrity.

Further, no stimulation of proliferation of uterine tissue was noted. Therefore, it is suggested that treatment with S. chinensis extracts might be a potential alternative therapy for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis.



Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill


Optimization of extraction and purification of active fractions from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) and its osteoblast ic proliferation stimulating activity


Extraction and purification condition of lignans from the fruits and seeds of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) were investigated through an orthogonal design of L9(34) assay and macroporous resin technology. The extraction was optimized using 95% ethanol. For purification, the extract was dissolved in 30% ethanol, then adsorbed on a AB‐8 macroporous resin and eluted with 30% ethanol and 70% ethanol successively, the latter resulting in a residue containing 65.2% of lignans.

By HPLC analysis schisandrin, deoxyschisandrin and γ‐schisandrin were quantitatively determined. UMR 106 cells were used to examine the stimulatory activity of the lignans on osteoblasts in vitro. The lignans stimulate d the proliferation of and the activity of alkaline phosphatase in the osteoblasts indicating their potential activity against osteoporosis.



Sea Cucumber


IPB Researchers: Sea Cucumbers Can Increase calcium Level in Menopausal Women


Osteoporosis, or bone loss, is a matter that most women concern greatly, especially those who are leading up to menopause and post menopause. Women who enter this phase generally experience significant bone mass decrease which leads to the bone fragility. Now, the ‘back to nature’ trend in health field becomes very popular. Natural materials begin to be explored as a source of raw materials for various health industries, including coastal biological resources.



Siberian Ginseng


effects Of Siberian Ginseng And Ipriflavone On The Development Of Glucocorticoid-Induced osteoporosis


Siberian ginseng extract produced a protective effect during experimental steroid-induced osteoporosis, which was comparable with the influence of ipriflavone.



Sipatah-Patah


The effect Of Sipatah-Patah (Cissus Quadrangularis Salisb) Administration On Osteoclast Formation And osteoporosis treatment In Female Rats During Post


Cissus quadrangularis Linn (Cq) is a rambling shrub, characterized by a thick quadrangular fleshy stem and widely used to cope with joint pain , syphilis, venereal disease, and osteoporosis. This plant is containing calcium , phosphate and phyto-oestrogens.

Hence the objective of the present study was to evaluate effect of the C. quadrangularis on bone recovery of rat. blood was drawn once each 30 days to analyze serum calcium and phosphate concentration in blood . Rats were sacrificed to analyze bone histology. Os tibia fibula slice was stained with Hematoxylin Eosin (HE) method to observe osteoblast and osteoclastogenesis density, and Masson trichrome to observe trabeculae structure. ESP administration at longer period on treatment rats (OV-2) leads to more radiopaque bone mass than other groups including control group but osteoclastogenesis density is lower.



Soybean Sprouts


effects Of Soybean Sprouts Isoflavone In The osteoporosis Of Rats Caused By Ovariectomy


The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of level of isoflavones supplementation on bone metabolism in osteoporosis rats. The effects of level of isoflavones supplementation on calcium and osteocalcin blood level, femur/body weight, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength were inspected in this study. This study classified 28 of 12 weeks-old male Sprague Dawley rats which have osteoporosis caused by ovariectomy into four groups of 7 rats and made the subjects medicated them isoflavone.

Group I was non-treatment after osteoporosis (control); Group II was low-dose isoflavone(20 mg/kg) feeding after osteoporosis ; Group III was middle-dose isoflavone(40 mg/kg) feeding after osteoporosis ; Group IV was high-dose isoflavone(80 mg/kg) feeding after osteoporosis ; In the calcium and osteocalcin level as one of bone formation indexes, there was a statistically significant difference between the group II, III, IV compared to group I. In respect to the femur/body weight, there was a statistically significant difference between the group II, III, IV compared to group I. In the bone mineral density and bone strength test, there was a statistically significant difference between the group II, III, IV compared to group I. The above results suggests that isoflavone medicated is effective to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.



Spinacia oleracea L.


Dried and free flowing granules of Spinacia oleracea accelerate bone regeneration and alleviate postmenopausal osteoporosis


Objective: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of extract derived from Spinacia oleracea extract (SOE) in reversing bone loss induced by ovariectomy and bone healing properties in a fracture drill-hole fracture model in rats.

Methods: SOE was administered orally for 12 weeks in adult ovariectomized Sprague Dawley rats after inducing osteopenic condition. bone micro-architecture, expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers, biomechanical strength , new bone formation, and bone turnover markers were studied. Uterine histomorphometry was used to assess estrogenicity. bone regeneration potential of SOE was assessed in a fracture drill-hole fracture model. fracture healing was assessed by calcein intensity and micro-CT analysis of callus at fracture region.

Results: SOE prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss as evident from 122% increase in bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) and 29% decline in Tb.Sp in femoral trabecular micro-architecture. This was corroborated by the more than twofold stimulation in the expression of osteogenic genes runt-related transcription factor 2, osterix, osteocalcin, bone morphogenetic protein 2, collagen -1. Furthermore in the fracture healing model, we observed a 25% increase in BV/TV and enhancement in calcein intensity at the fracture d site. The extract when converted into dried deliverable Spinaceae oleracea granule (SOG) form accelerated bone regeneration at fracture site, which was more efficient as evident by a 39% increase in BV/TV. Transforming SOE into dried granules facilitated prolonged systemic availability, thus providing enhanced activity for a period of 14 days.

Conclusions: SOE treatment effectively prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss and stimulate  fracture healing in adult rats. The dried granular form of the extract of Spinaceae oleracea was effective in fracture healing at the same dose.



Taiwanofungus camphoratus


effect of Ethanolic s from Taiwanofungus camphoratus and T. salmoneus (Agaricomycetes) Mycelia on osteoporosis Recovery


osteoporosis is common in postmenopausal women and elderly people. In this study, the ovariectomized mice were used as an in vivo test to evaluate the effects of 70% ethanolic extracts of Taiwanofungus camphoratus and T. salmoneus (Polyporales, Agaricomycetes) on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Ovariectomized mice had significantly higher body weight and histopathological alterations of the liver were found to have diffused fatty infiltrated vesicles. The bone parameters of the femur were determined by microcomputed tomography. In addition, the relative weight of the uterus is significantly lower and atrophy of the uterine glands was found in histopathological alterations. The results of trabecular bone parameters showed that feeding high doses of T. camphoratus mycelia ethanolic extract to ovariectomized mice had the ability to delay bone loss.

The bone density of trabecular bone and cortical bone were also significantly higher than those of ovariectomized mice, indicating that the ethanolic extract of T. camphoratus has the potential to delay the occurrence of osteoporosis.



Thearubigins


effect Of Black Tea And Thearubigins On osteoporosis In Rats And Osteoclast Formation In Vitro


Background: osteoporosis is a major health problem that is closely related to substantial morbidity, mortality and decline in life quality for the aging population. Although previous studies and epidemiological evidence have demonstrated an association between black tea consumption and the prevention of bone loss, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. So, the effect of black tea extract (BTE) and thearubigins (TRs) on osteoporosis in rats and osteoclastogenesis formation in vitro were investigated.

Methods:In vivo, ovariectomized (OVX) rats were used to establish osteoporosis models. To validate the model and study the effects of BTE and TRs on osteoporosis , the female Wistar rats were divided into a sham-operated group and five OVX groups including model, Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao (XLGB) (as a positive control), BTE, TRs low-dose, and TRs high-dose group. The rats in the four treatment groups were given the corresponding test sample for 12 weeks. Then, the body weight, femur indices, and serum biomarkers were examined and analyzed. In vitro, RAW264.7 murine macrophages were used as model of osteoclastogenesis formation. The effects of BTE and TRs on osteoclasts formation and the specific genes and protein levels of osteoclasts were determined.

Results: Although there was no significant effect on the OVX-induced body weight gain by BTE or TRs, the levels of maximum bending force, cortical bone thickness and biomarker of bone resorption (acid phosphatase) can be significantly ameliorated by BTE or TRs in OVX rats. Furthermore, both of BTE and TRs can inhibit the osteoclastogenesis ogenesis and diminish the expression levels of the related genes and proteins.



Titrated Horsetail


Female Climacteric osteoporosis Therapy With Titrated Horsetail (Equisetum Arvense) Plus calcium (Osteosil calcium ): Randomized Double Blind Study


Background: Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of silicon uptake in the diet (Equisetum arvense) in subjects with in menopausal and senile osteoporosis.

Methods: The study recruited 122 women in menopause for at least two years, who had not undergone estrogen replacement therapy or drug therapies for recalcification: 30 patients were administered with titrated dry horsetail extract for 80 days; 31 patients were administered with a placebo for 40 days and titrated horsetail extract for a further 40 days; 29 patients received no treatment whatsoever; 32 patients were treated with OSTEOSIL calcium for 80 days. All patients received two tablets per day according to procedures for randomized double blind studies.

Results: Variations in the results of Nordin tests, carried out at the beginning of the study and after 40 and 80 days, indicate that treatment with placebo and the absence of treatment were both ineffective; patients who received treatment with titrated horsetail extract after the period of placebo administration showed the same changes observed in patients treated with the active ingredient; treatment with titrated horsetail extract and with Osteosil calcium proved effective in reducing the average score of the Nordin test and hence in improving bone metabolism. After the 80-day initial study period, patients treated with titrated horsetail extract and with Osteosil calcium continued treatment for one year, two tablets per day for two months, followed by 2 weeks without treatment , then two months administration, 2 weeks rest, and so on.

Conclusions: Total body double ray bone densitometry carried out at baseline control and after one year’s therapy with titrated horsetail extract or Osteosil calcium showed a sharp increase in the average densimetric values for the vertebra, and these were significantly higher in patients treated with Osteosil calcium , with an average recovery of bone mass of around 2.3%. During the period of the study no adverse events which could be attributed to the administration of the study drug were reported.



Trachyrhamphus Swrratus


effects Of Trachyrhamphus Swrratus On osteoporosis Of Ovariectomijed Rats


Objective: To study an effect of Trachyrhamphus serratus extracts on ovariectomied female adult rats.

Method: Water and ethanol extracts of Trachyrhamphus serratus were administered daily to the rats for 8 weeks after being ovariectomied.Then, the relative a indexes were determined and compared with the sham operation group, pattern group, and nylestriol group.

Result: Statistical results showed that bone ash and calcium were sigmificantly higher in groups treated with either extract than in pattern groups(P 0.05)and that bone strength was signidicantly in water extract treated rats.Conclusion: The study indicated that Trachyhamphus swrratus extracts have theropeutical effects on osteoporosis in ovariectomied rats.



Tribulus terrestris


Osteoprotective effects of Tribulus terrestris L.: Relationship Between Dehydroepiandrosterone Levels and Ca2+-Sparing effect


Osteoporosis is a systemic bone disease that is characterized by impairments in bone strength that predispose an individual to a higher risk of fractures. Despite the various etiologies, undoubtedly the most important factors are aging of the population and hypogonadism. Although several therapeutic options are available, pharmacological treatments have some risks. Among these are increases in the incidence of thrombosis, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, and muscle injury, among others. Herbal medication may be an alternative for the treatment of osteoporosis.

Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a standardized extract of Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in rats. Female rats were first subjected to OVX and treated with TT (3, 30, and 300 mg/[kg·day]) or furosemide (25 mg/kg) orally for 28 days. bone densitometry and tibial histology were performed, and acute renal function and testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and estradiol levels were assessed. Prolonged treatment with TT stimulate  bone mass gain in all ovariectomized animals, raising bone mass to levels that were similar to sham-operated rats. DHEA levels significantly increased in TT-treated rats. The TT group also had lower calcium (Ca2+) excretion that OVX control and furosemide-treated rats.

Finally, the histopathological analyses showed the maintenance of bone turnover in all TT-treated groups. Overall, the results indicate that the standardized extract of T. terrestris exerted a boneprotective effect by increasing bone mineral density. This activity may be at least partially attributable to an increase in serum DHEA levels and a Ca2+-sparing effect.



Trifolium medium L.


effects of s from Trifolium medium L. and Trifolium pratense L. on development of estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis in rats


Some plant species belonging to Trifolium L. genus are a source of isoflavones considered to exert phytoestrogenic activities. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of standardized extract obtained from aerial parts of Trifolium medium L., in comparison with the extract of Trifolium pratense L., on the development of estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis in rats. Both Trifolium extracts, at doses corresponding to 10 and 20 mg/kg of isoflavone aglycones daily, or estradiol (0.2 mg/kg daily), were administered orally to ovariectomized (OVX) rats for 4 weeks.

Serum bone turnover markers, bone mass, mineral ization, and mechanical properties were studied. In OVX control rats, mechanical properties of the tibial metaphysis and femoral neck were strongly worsened in comparison with sham-operated control rats, and those of femoral diaphysis were unaffected. Estradiol counteracted the worsening of the tibial strength and increases in bone turnover markers.

Both extracts significantly increased the strength of the femoral diaphysis and calcium and phosphorus content in the bone mineral, but only T. pratense extract increased the strength of the tibial metaphysis. In conclusion, effects of both Trifolium extracts differed from those of estradiol. It is possible that other than isoflavone extract constituents contributed to their skeletal effects.



Triticum Aestivum Aqueous


Role Of Triticum Aestivum Aqueous In Glucocorticoid Induced osteoporosis In Rats


Administration of aqueous extract of T. aestivum (200 and 400 mg/kg/day, po, for 30 days) and risedronate (20 microg/kg, sc, five times a week for 30 days) following methyl prednisolone sodium succinate (10 mg/kg, sc, thrice a week for 4 weeks) induced osteoporosis in Wistar rats showed an increase in the serum levels of bone mineral content markers, decrease in the serum and urinary levels of bone resorption markers. An incline in strength of femur and tibia was seen particularly with 400 mg/kg of T. aestivum. Maintenance of calcium homeostasis, formation of collagen and scavenging of free radicals can plausibly be the mode of action of aqueous extract of T. aestivum thereby combating osteoporosis induced by glucocorticoids.



Vigna Angularis


Beneficial effects Of Vigna Angularis In osteoporosis And Osteoarthritis


In Asia, Vigna angularis (azuki bean) has been used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases because of its biological properties. Osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis (OP) are common regenerative bone diseases that are characterized by deterioration of joint and bone structure. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Vigna angularis extract (VAE) on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)‐induced OA and ovariectomy (OVX)‐induced OP models. In the MIA‐induced OA results, severe OA was alleviate d by the administration of VAE. Extensive local damage in the cartilage and hemorrhagic and edematous of surrounding tissues were decreased by VAE treatment . Articular cartilage was almost intact except for a focal mild abrasion, and the surface was glistening, similar to that of the normal joint. In the OVX‐induced OP results, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were recovered by VAE treatment, and it improved the microstructures of bone ]. These results show that VAE could inhibit OA and OP symptoms.



Yukmi-jihwang-tang-Jahage s


A Study on bone resorption & osteoporosis by Yukmi-jihwang-tang-Jahage s


Purpose: In adults, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), an effect counteracted by growth hormone (GH) replacement. Whether GH is beneficial in adults with age-related bone loss and without hypopituitarism is unclear.

Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search using Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials. We extracted and analyzed data according to the bone outcome included [bone mineral content (BMC), BMD, and bone biomarker, fracture risk]. We performed a meta-analysis when possible.

Results: We included eight studies. Seven randomized 272 post-menopausal women, 61-69 years, to GH or control, for 6-24 months, and the eighth was an extension trial. Except for one study, all women received concurrent osteoporosis therapies. There was no significant effect of GH, as compared to control, on BMD at the lumbar spine (Weighted mean difference WMD = -0.01 [-0.04, 0.02]), total hip (WMD = 0 [-0.05, 0.06]) or femoral neck (WMD = 0 [-0.03, 0.04]). Similarly, no effect was seen on BMC. GH significantly increased the bone formation marker procollagen type-I carboxy-terminal propeptide (PICP) (WMD = 14.03 [2.68, 25.38]). GH resulted in a trend for increase in osteocalcin and in bone resorption markers. Patients who received GH had a significant decrease in fracture risk as compared to control (RR = 0.63 [0.46, 0.87]). Reported adverse events were not major, mostly related to fluid retention.

Conclusion: GH may not improve bone density in women with age-related bone loss but may decrease fracture risk. Larger studies of longer duration are needed to further explore these findings in both genders, and to investigate the effect of GH on bone quality.



Yupingfeng


effect Of Yupingfeng On bone Metabolism In Model Rats With osteoporosis Induced By Cyclophosphamide


Objective: To study the effect of Yupingfeng (YPF)extract on Ca,P,Mg and hydroxyproline of bone in model rats with osteoporosis induced by cyclophosphamide(CP)and to discuss the preventive and therapeutic effect of YPF ext-ract on CP-induced osteoporosis.

Methods: A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into four groups:control group,CP group,YPF extract group,and calciμm carbonate + Vit D group.The rats were sacrificed at 15 days of experiment,and the levels of Mg,Ca,P and hydroxyproline of left femoral bone were determined.

Results: Compared with control group,levels of different index with CP group was significantly decreased ;compared with CP group,levels of Ca,Mg,P and hydroxyproline of bone in rats treated with YPF extract were significantly increased.

Conclusion: CP may induce decrease of levels of Ca,Mg,P and hydroxyproline of bone ,however,on which YPF extract has preventive and therapeutic effect.



Zuoguiwan


effect of Zuoguiwan on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats through RANKL/OPG pathway mediated by β2AR


Ethnopharmacological relevance: The deficiency of kidney Yin is the main pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) according to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Zuoguiwan (ZGW) is among the classical prescriptions in TCM and has been applied to various diseases that are due to deficiency of kidney Yin, including osteoporosis, fractures, menopausal syndromes. However, the underlying mechanism of ZGW in treating PMOP remains poorly understood.

Aim of the study: ZGW, a traditional Chinese prescription, has been used to nourish Yin and reinforce the kidney since ancient times. The investigation aimed to explore the mechanism of ZGW via the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) signaling pathway as mediated by the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) in an osteoporosis rat model.

Materials and methods: An osteoporosis model induced by ovariectomy was established in rats. A total of 40 female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned into bilateral ovariectomy group (OVX), sham operated group (Sham), 17β-estradiol-treated positive group (E2, 25 μg/kg/d), ZGW low-dose group (ZGW-L, 2.3 g/kg/d lyophilized powder) and ZGW high-dose group (ZGW-H, 4.6 g/kg/d lyophilized powder). The serum markers of bone turnover were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The morphological structure changes in bones were detected through H&E staining. Local bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone microarchitecture of the right distal femur were measured and evaluated by using micro-CT. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expressions levels of β2AR, OPG and medicine RANKL were measured by qPCR and Western blot analysis.

Results: Compared with the OVX group, ZGW groups showed significantly reduced levels of serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b) and β-cross-linked c-telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX) (P < 0.01), increased levels of serum bone -specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) (P < 0.01) and OPG (P < 0.05), prevention of OVX-induced bone loss, and improved microarchitecture of the trabecular bone of distal femur. Moreover, ZGW mediated the osteoporosis syndrome by reducing the empty bone lacunae, promoting the ordered arrangement of trabeculae structure, and increasing the trabeculae structure thickness. Furthermore, in ZGW groups, the protein expression of OPG in the tibia was notably up-regulated (P < 0.01), whereas the mRNA and protein expression of β2AR in the hippocampus (P < 0.01), and the protein expressions levels of β2AR (P < 0.01) and RANKL (P < 0.05) in the tibia were down-regulated compared with OVX group.

Conclusions: ZGW through its protective effects, stimulates bone formation and suppresses bone resorption. The underlying mechanism of ZGW in improving perimenopausal syndrome and increasing bone mass might be attributed to the regulation of RANKL/OPG, as mediated by β2AR. Therefore, ZGW may be used as an alternative treatment for PMOP.

1 review for TITANIUM – Osteogenic (Anti Osteoporosis) Formula For Supreme Bone Health

  1. Rich Ryan

    My Dad has osteoarthritis and my Mom has rheumatoid. So preventatives for bone and joint health are very important in my life. I started getting arthritis symptoms in my early thirties. Being overweight and a not so great diet definitely didn’t help. I started eating organic and losing weight in my late thirties, but still the early onset of arthritis continued.
    Since finding Interstellar Blends, I’ve been taking large doses of Spice and Peel blend to help combat arthritis, and support skin, hair and overall health.
    Titanium is one of the newest blends from Interstellar. And upon trying it, I found that it has taken things to the next level!
    I tried Titanium and immediately felt this sense of calm and peace. Within a week I noticed that my joints felt stronger and more elastic, and were easier to move. Now that I’ve finished my 1st bag a couple weeks ago, I can already feel tension in my head and neck returning, and my fingers as well.
    Titanium brings together super concentrated Flavonoids and Polyphenols, along with the best herbs in the world for bone and joint health. Flavonoids and Polyphenols are very important compounds for health, found in fruits, vegetables and spices. They pretty much support every organ and system in the entire body.
    Looking through the ingredient list almost made me swoon. Titanium has an unbelievably powerful mixture of the finest ingredients that money can buy.
    Looks like this one’s a keeper! Time to get some more!

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