SABRETOOTH – Tooth Decay & Gum Disease Destroyer

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Introducing:

SABRE

TOOTH


TOOTH DECAY & GUM DISEASE DESTROYER


200:1 Concentration

 


benefits:


SABRETOOTH PROTOCOL :


1. Schedule a proper Cleaning to remove all Plaque and Tarter for a fresh start. Once gone we are going to keep it gone.


2. Brush with baking soda and 1/16th tsp (gold spoon) SABRETOOTH 3 x a day; use soft bristle electric tooth brush. *Brush within 1 hour of all meals.


3. Get waterpik and use daily with 1 tsp baking soda, 1/8 tsp SABRETOOTH, 1 tsp INTERSTELLAR MATCHA & 1 Oz Hydrogen Peroxide in warm water.


4. Take 1/2 tsp SABRETOOTH a day in 4oz fresh grapefruit juice for first week; 1/4-1/2 tsp a day to maintain after. You can also add 1/8 tsp to your coffee or INTERSTELLAR MATCHA with other blends.


5. If you have an active Tooth infection use a baking soda tablet and sleep with it placed between cheek and infected Tooth. *I personally do this nightly regardless as a precautionary measure to maintain alkaline saliva all night long. 


VERY IMPORTANT:

It is absolutely critical to understand that


Tooth Decay and Gum Disease BEGINS when saliva pH drops and becomes acidic (read it again)


Sugar rapidly lowers saliva pH and destroys Teeth and Gums (the baking soda raises pH and SABRETOOTH helps restore Gum Health and remineralize Teeth both internally and externally).

You can buy pH strips to test your saliva pH. 7 and above is what you want to maintain as often as possible. DO THIS and you will have a lifetime of perfect Teeth and Gums.


BAKING SODA. BAKING SODA. BAKING SODA. Got it? Good. Brush with BAKING SODA 3 times a day to keep SALIVA pH ALKALINE.

Why???

Because the bacteria behind tooth decay and gum disease can’t survive in an alkaline environment!

WHAMMO!!!! 



Featuring:

4-Chromanol, The Major Constituent Of Piper Betle • Acemannan • Aceriphyllum Rossii Engler (Saxifragaceae) • Achyranthes Bidentata • Agastache Rugosa • Allium Sativum Bulb • Angelica Dahurica • Angelica Sinensis • Arctium Lappa • Astilbin, Flavanone From Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae • Astragalus Longistylus • Azadiratcha Indica (Neem) • Baicalin • Bitter Guard (Momordica Charantia) • Bletilla Striata • Boswellia Carterii Birdw • Caffeic Acid • Carvacrol • Chitosan • Cimicifugae Rhizoma • Citrus Reticulata Blanco Peel • Cocoa Pod Husks • Coptidis Rhizoma • Cortex Phellodendri (Huang Bai) • Cranberry • Cymbopogon Flexuosus • Deoxynojirimycin • Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate • Dodonaea Viscosa Var Angustifolia Leaf • Epigallocatechin‐3‐Gallate (EGCG) • Eucalyptus Camaldulensis • Eugenol From Essential Oil Of Syzygium Aromaticum Clove) • Fructus Armeniaca Mume (Wu Mei) • Galla Chinensis • Gallic Acid • Genipin • Ginkgo Bilobal Leaf • Glycyrrhiza Glabra • Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fisch • Glycyrrhizol A • Grape Seed • Green Tea Tea Polyphenols • Guaijaverin • Hesperidin • Honokiol Isolated From Magnolia Sp Bark • Houttuynia Cordata • Humulus Lupulus • Isopanduratin A • Juniperus Excelsa M Bieb Essential Oil • Kaempferia Galanga • LACTOFERRIN • Lagerstroemia Speciosa (Lythraceae) Leaves • Lippia Sidoides • Macelignan • Magnolol • Marticariarecutitia (German Chamomile) • Matricaria Chamomilla • Melaleuca Alternifolia (Tea Tree Oil) • Mentha Arvensis • Mentha Piperita • Mentha Spicata • Morinda Citrifolia (Indian Mulberry) • MSM • Myricetin • Myrtus Communis • Nano-hydroxyapatite • Nelumbo Nucifera Leaves • Nepeta Cataria • Nigella Stevia • Oleanolic Acid • Ophiopogon Japonicus Kergawl • Origanum Glandulosum • Osmanthus Fragrans Lour Flower • Paeonia Lactiflora Pall • Paeonia Suffruticosa • Panax Ginseng C A Meyer • Panaxnotoginseng • Pearl Powder • Perilla Seed (Perilla Frutescens Britton Var Japonica Hara) • Physalis Angulata • Polygonum Cuspidatum • Propolis • Propolis Ethanol • Psidium Cattleianum Leaf • Pycnogenol • Quercetin • Quercitrin • Radix Et Rhizoma Rhei (Da Huang) • Rheedia Brasiliensis Fruit (Bacupari) • Ricinus Communis • Rosmarinus Officinalis • Salidroside From Rhodiola Rosea • Salvadora Persica Aqueous • Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bge • Satureja Hortensis • Saussurea Lappa • Shikonin From Lithospermum Erythrorhizo • Sophora Japonical Flower • Tamarillo Skin • Tamarindus Indica (Cesalpiniaceae) Seed • Terpinen-4-Ol • Thymbra Capitata • Thymus Zygis • Triphala • Ursolic Acid • Vitamin D • Vitamin K2 Mk4 Mk7 • Xanthorrhizol • Zerumbone From Zingiber Zerumbet • Α-Mangostin



Calorie restriction and intermittent fasting can play a key role in the cost‐effective resolution of Periodontal Inflammation as a primary Prevention strategy for the management of chronic inflammatory Diseases, including Periodontal Diseases.


Promotion of Natural Tooth Repair by small molecule GSK-3 antagonists:



INGREDIENTS & SCIENCE:



4-chromanol, the major constituent of Piper betle Extract


Screening for antiBacterial and antiBiofilm activity in Thai medicinal Plant Extracts against Oral Microorganisms


To evaluate the antiBacterial activity of 12 ethanol Extracts of Thai traditional herb against Oral Pathogens. The antiBacterial activities were assessed by agar well diffusion, broth microdilution, and time-kill methods. AntiBiofilm activity was investigated using a 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assay. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC) fingerprinting, and TLC-bioautography were used to determine the active antiBacterial compounds. Piper betle showed the best antiBacterial activities against all tested strains in the minimal Inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration, ranged from 1.04–5.21 mg/mL and 2.08–8.33 mg/mL, respectively. Killing ability depended on time and concentrations of the Extract. P. betle Extract acts as a Potent antibiofilm agent with dual actions, preventing and eradicating the Biofilm. The major constituent of P. betle Extract was 4-chromanol, which responded for antiBacterial and antibiofilm against Oral Pathogens. It suggests that the ethanol P. betle leaves Extract may be used for Preventing Oral Diseases.


Betelvine (Piper betle L.): A Potential source for Oral care


Piper betle L. (betelvine) is a valuable crop that is widely used as masticatory and with a long past history of varied traditional
uses. Betelvine possesses numerous phytochemicals with important pharmacological attributes. Active molecules such

as Fluoride, Eugenol, Hydroxylchavicol, Chlorogenic acid etc. present in betelvine with Potent antibacterial, antifungal

as well as anti-carcinogenic properties signify tremendous prospective of the Plant for the formulation of Natural Product

based drugs for maintaining hygiene and cure of Diseases in the Oral Cavity
.

 


Effect of Piper betle L. Leaf Extract on the Virulence Activity of Streptococcus Mutans -An in vitro Study


In this study the effect of crude aqueous Extract of the leaves of Piper betle L. on the virulence properties of Streptococcus Mutans ATCC 25175 was investigated. It was carried out based on the effect of the Extract towards growth, cell surface hydrophobicity, adhering property and glucosyltransferase activity of the S. Mutans. The concentration of crude aqueous Extract of Piper betle L . used in the experiments above was between 0 to 20 mg mL<sup>-1</sup>. Chlorhexidine (0.12%) and sterile deionised water was used as positive and blank control, respectively. The results obtained showed that the crude Extract at a concentration as low as 2.5 mg mL<sup>-1</sup> exhibited reduced effect towards the growth (p<0.01), adhering ability (p<0.01), glucosyltransferase activity (p<0.05) and cell surface hydrophobicity (p<0.05) of S. Mutans when compared with the blank control. This implies that the Piper betle L . Extract may have anti-virulence property towards S. Mutans .


Scanning Electron Microscopic study ofPiper betle
L. leaves Extract effect against Streptococcus
mutans ATCC 25175


Introduction

Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves Extract Inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus Mutans to glass surface, suggesting its Potential role in controlling Dental Plaque development. Objectives: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. Extract towards S. Mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined.

Material and Methods

S. Mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the Extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1); with sucrose containing the Extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1)]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. Mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without Extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly.

Results

It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. Mutans (p<0.001). S. Mutans adhering to 100 µm2 glass surfaces (with/without sucrose) exhibited reduced cell surface area, fluffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves Extract. It was also found that the Extract Inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its Inhibition at 2.5 mg mL-1 corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL-1 of the Extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity.

Conclusion

The SEM analysis confirmed the Inhibitory Effects of the Piper betle L. leaves Extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. Mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved.


 


Acemannan


Herbal Medications in Endodontics and Its Application—A Review of Literature


Herbal Products are gaining popularity in Dental and medical practice nowadays due to
their biocompatibility, higher Antimicrobial activity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Herbal medicine has experienced rapid growth in recent years due to its beneficial properties, ease
of availability, and lack of side Effects. As pathogenic Bacteria become more resistant to antibiotics
and chemotherapeutic agents, researchers are becoming more interested in alternative Products
and treatment choices for Oral Diseases. As a result, Natural phytochemicals separated from Plants
and utilized in traditional medicine are suitable substitutes for synthetic chemicals. The aim of this
review article is to list and understand several herbal alternatives that are currently accessible for
use as efficient endodontic medicaments. The herbal Products used in endodontics have several
advantages, including safety, ease of use, increased storability, low cost, and a lack of microbial
tolerance. However, preclinical and clinical testing and interactions with other materials and adverse
Effects are required for these herbal Products.


Stimulation of Dentin Regeneration by Using Acemannan in Teeth with Lipopolysaccharide-induced Pulp Inflammation


Introduction

This study investigated the Effects of acemannan, a polysaccharide from Aloe vera, on human deciduous Pulp cells in vitro and the response after vital Pulp therapy in dog deciduous Teeth.
Methods

Human primary Dental Pulpal cells were treated with acemannan in vitro and evaluated for proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, type I collagen, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2), BMP-4, vascular endothelial growth factor, and Dentin sialoprotein expression and mineralization. Osteogenesis-related gene expression was analyzed by complementary DNA microarray. Pulpal Inflammation was induced in dog Teeth for 14 days. The inflamed Pulp was removed, retaining the Healthy Pulp. The Teeth were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups: acemannan, mineral trioxide aggregate, and formocresol. Sixty days later, the Teeth were Extracted and evaluated histopathologically.
Results

Acemannan significantly increased Pulp cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, BMP-2, BMP-4, vascular endothelial growth factor, and Dentin sialoprotein expression and mineralization approximately 1.4-, 1.6-, 1.6-, 5.5-, 2.6-, 3.8-, 1.8-, and 4.8-fold, respectively, compared with control. In vivo, partial Pulpotomy treatment using acemannan generated outcomes similar to mineral trioxide aggregate treatment, resulting in mineralized bridge formation with normal Pulp tissue without Inflammation or Pulp necrosis. In contrast, the formocresol group demonstrated Pulp Inflammation without mineralized bridge formation.
Conclusions

Acemannan is biocompatible with the Dental Pulp. Furthermore, acemannan stimulated Dentin Regeneration in Teeth with reversible Pulpitis


 


Aceriphyllum rossii Engler (Saxifragaceae)


Potent Anticariogenic Activity of Aceriphyllum rossii and Its Components, Aceriphyllic Acid A and 3-oxoolean-12-en-27-oic Acid


Aceriphyllum rossii Engler (Saxifragaceae) have been used as a nutritious food in Korea. We found that the methanol Extract of A. rossii Root and its components, aceriphyllic acid A and 3-oxoolean-12-en-27-oic acid, Potently Inhibited the growth of the key cariogenic Bacteria, Streptococcus Mutans, with MIC of 2 to 4 μg/mL. They also showed antibacterial activity against other cariogenic Bacteria such as S. Oralis, S. sobrinus, and S. salivarius with the similar potency. In the time-kill study, aceriphyllic acid A reduced the viable counts of S. Mutans by 90% in 1 min at 8 μg/mL, indicating that aceriphyllic acid A had the fast bacteriostatic activity. Severe damages of the cell surface of S. Mutans by aceriphyllic acid A were observed by transmission electron microscopy, suggesting with its fast antibacterial activity that its mechanism of action might be membrane disruption. These results suggest that the methanol Extract of A. rossii Root and its components, aceriphyllic acid A and 3-oxoolean-12-en-27-oic acid, could have the great Potential as Natural agents for preventing Dental Caries.


 


Achyranthes bidentata Bl. Root Extract


Therapeutic Effect of Ecdysterone Combine Paeonol Oral Cavity Direct Administered on Radiation-Induced Oral Mucositis in Rats


Radiation-induced Oral mucositis represents an influential factor in cancer patients’ accepted radiation therapy, especially in head and neck cancer. This research investigates the treatment effect of Ecdysterone (a steroid derived from the dry Root of Achyranthes bidentate) and Paeonol (a compound derived from Cortex Moutan) on radiation-induced Oral mucositis and possible underlying mechanisms. Concisely, 20 Gy of X-rays (single-dose) irradiated the cranial localization in rats for the modeling of Oral mucositis. The therapeutic Effects of Ecdysterone-Paeonol Oral Cavity directly administered on radiation-induced Oral mucositis were investigated by weight changes, direct observations, visual scoring methods, ulcer area/total area, and basic recovery days. Assessments of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6 were performed to evaluate the inflammatory cytokines secretion in the damaged areas of tongues harvested post-treatment, and changes in signaling pathways were investigated by Western blotting. System Drug Target (SysDT) methods revealed the targets of Ecdysterone-Paeonol in order to support compound-target network construction. Four representative targets with different functions were chosen. The binding interactions between the compound and receptor were evaluated by molecular docking to investigate the binding affinity of the ligand to their protein targets. Ecdysterone-Paeonol, administered Orally, effectively improved radiation-induced Oral mucositis in rats, and the therapeutic effect was better than Ecdysterone administered Orally on its own. In this study, calculational chemistry revealed that Ecdysterone-Paeonol affected 19 function targets associated with radiation-induced Oral mucositis, including apoptosis, proliferation, Inflammation, and wound healing. These findings position Ecdysterone-Paeonol as a Potential treatment candidate for Oral mucositis acting on multiple targets in the clinic.


 


Agastache rugosa (Fisch. et Mey.) O. Ktze. Extract


Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of essential oil of Agastache rugosa from Xinjiang, China


In the study, we evaluated chemical composition and Antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antitumor activities of essential oils from dried leaf essential oil of leaf and flower of Agastache rugosa for the first time. Essential oil of leaf and flower was evaluated with GC and GC–MS methods, and the essential oil of flower revealed the presence of 21 components, whose major compounds were pulegone (34.1%), estragole (29.5%), and p-Menthan-3-one (19.2%). 26 components from essential oil of leaf were identified, the major compounds were p-Menthan-3-one (48.8%) and estragole (20.8%). At the same time, essential oil of leaf, there is a very effective Antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 9.4 to 42 μg ml−1 and Potential antibiofilm, antitumor activities for essential oils of flower and leaf essential oil of leaf. The study highlighted the diversity in two different parts of A. rugosa grown in Xinjiang region and other places, which have different active constituents. Our results showed that this native Plant may be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.



Allium sativum bulb


Potential effect of Allium sativum bulb for the treatment of Biofilm forming clinical Pathogens recovered from Periodontal and Dental Caries


Biofilm producing clinical bacterial isolates were isolated from Periodontal and Dental Caries samples and identified as, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus sanguis, S. salivarius, S. Mutansand Staphylococcus aureus. Among the identified bacterial species, S. aureus and S. Mutansshowed strong Biofilm producing capacity. The other isolated Bacteria, Streptococcus sanguis, S. salivarius showed moderate Biofilm formation. These Pathogens were subjected for the Production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) in nutrient broth medium and the strain S. aureus synthesized more amounts of EPS (610 ± 11.2 µg/ml) than S. sanguis (480 ± 5.8 µg/ml).EPS Production was found to be less in S. salivarius (52 ± 3.8 µg/ml).The solvent Extract of A. sativum bulb showed the phytochemicals such as, carbohydrate, total protein, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and sterioids. The solvent Extract of A. sativum bulb showed wide ranges of activity against the selected Dental Pathogens. The difference in antibacterial activity of the solvent Extract revealed differences in solubility of phytochemicals in organic solvents. Ethanol Extract was highly active againstS. aureus (25 ± 2 mm). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of crude garlic bulb varied widely and this clearly showed that Bacteria exhibits different level of susceptibility to secondary metabolites. MIC value ranged between 20 ± 2 mg/ml and 120 ± 6 mg/ml and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) value ranged from 60 ± 5 mg/l to 215 ± 7 mg/ml. To conclude, A. sativum bulb can be effectively used to treat Periodontal and Dental Caries infections.


antibacterial effect of different concentrations of garlic (Allium sativum) Extract on Dental Plaque Bacteria


Background: Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, exhibits antibacterial Effects against a wide range of Bacteria.
Aim: The objective of this in vitro study was to assess the antibacterial effect of different concentrations of garlic Extract against human Dental Plaque microbiota.
Materials and Methods: antibacterial activities of four different concentrations of garlic Extract (5%, 10%, 20%, and 100%) were evaluated against Streptococcus Mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and lactobacillus spp. using the disk diffusion method. Papers soaked in 0.2% concentration chlorhexidine gluconate and saline were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and the Tukey multiple comparisons test at a 5% significance level.
Results: All bacterial strains were Inhibited by all test materials. The Inhibition zones of the different concentrations of garlic Extract were not significantly different for S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius. For P. aeruginosa and lactobacillus spp. the Inhibition zones of 5%, 10% and 20% concentrations were not significantly different from one another, but they were significantly more than that of the 100% Extract.
Conclusion: The 5%, 10%, 20%, and 100% concentrations of garlic Extract had similar Effects, so further studies seem to be indicated on the usefulness of the 5% Extract.


Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Bioactives and Its Role in Alleviating Oral Pathologies


Garlic (Allium sativa L.) is a bulbous flowering Plant belongs to the family of Amaryllidaceae and is a predominant horticultural crop originating from central Asia. Garlic and its Products are chiefly used for culinary and therapeutic purposes in many countries. Bulbs of raw garlic have been investigated for their role in Oral Health, which are ascribed to a myriad of biologically active compounds such as alliin, allicin, methiin, S-allylcysteine (SAC), diallyl sulfide (DAS), S-ally-mercapto cysteine (SAMC), diallyl disulphide (DADS), diallyl trisulfide (DATS) and methyl allyl disulphide. A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA statement. Scopus, PubMed, Clinicaltrials.gov, and Science direct databases were searched between 12 April 2021 to 4 September 2021. A total of 148 studies were included and the qualitative synthesis phytochemical profile of GE, biological activities, therapeutic applications of garlic Extract (GE) in Oral Health care system, and its mechanism of action in curing various Oral pathologies have been discussed. Furthermore, the safety of incorporation of GE as food supplements is also critically discussed. To conclude, GE could conceivably make a treatment recourse for patients suffering from diverse Oral Diseases.


Anti-microbial efficacy of Allium sativum Extract against Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm and its penetration into the Root Dentin: An in vitro study


Introduction: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has long been the most preferred Root canal irrigant in endodontic treatment, but besides being an effective anti-microbial agent, it is highly cytotoxic. Thus, a search for an alternative herbal irrigant which would be more biocompatible but equally effective led to this study. Aim: To assess the anti-microbial efficacy of garlic Extract (GE) against Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm and its ability to penetrate into Root Dentin. Materials and Methods: E. faecalis was cultured and treated with the test agents – normal saline, 5.25% of NaOCl, and the three different concentrations of GE (10%, 40%, and 70%). The experiment was done in four groups namely, 24-h Co-treatment group, 24-h Biofilm treatment group, 1-week Biofilm group, and 3-week Biofilm group. These groups were subjected to microbial viability assay and fluorescence microscopic analysis. The most effective concentration of garlic (70%) was further tested and compared with 5.25% NaOCl for its Dentin penetration property using 0.2% alizarin red under a fluorescence microscope. Results: The findings revealed that GE was able to disrupt as well as Prevent the formation of Biofilm produced by E. faecalis. All the concentrations of GE displayed considerable anti-microbial efficacy where 70% concentration was most effective and exhibited similar anti-microbial efficacy as 5.25% NaOCl. In terms of Dentin penetration, no significant difference was found between GE and NaOCl. Conclusion: The results indicate that GE has a Potential to serve as an alternative herbal Root canal irrigant being an effective and biocompatible anti-microbial agent with good Dentinal penetration property.


Effectiveness of Allium sativum on bacterial Oral Infection


Garlic or Allium sativum is a species in the Allium genus. Its name is derived from an old English word that means spear and leek. Garlic is found all over the world. It has some important chemical compositions that show various activities. The Health benefits of consuming garlic are very well known. The use of A. sativum as an antibacterial agent and its Effects on Oral flora are currently being studied in vitro and in vivo. The application of garlic in Oral therapy has shown promising results against Porphyromonas Gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and also on the proteases of Porphyromonas Gingivalis that are found in Periodontitis. Furthermore, in vivo studies have reported that Mouthrinse containing garlic Extract is efficient in the treatment of Streptococcus Mutans Bacteria by reducing their complete count in saliva. The ongoing interest in garlic as an Oral antibacterial agent has grown since it appears that the resistance of Bacteria to garlic is much less than conventional antibiotics. It has also been found that garlic has antifungal, anticancer, antiallergic, antiobesity, and antiviral properties. Garlic could conceivably become a treatment option for patients suffering from a variety of Oral Diseases.



Angelica dahurica Extract


Angelica dahurica ameliorates the Inflammation of Gingival tissue via regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators in experimental model for Periodontitis


Abstract
Ethnopharmacological relevance

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Angelica dahurica (AD) have been reported in previous studies. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory Effects of AD on Periodontitis.
Materials and methods

Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 weeks (n=7) were subjected to ligature around bilateral mandibular first molars. 1 and 100 mg/mL of AD were topically applied to first molars for 14 days. Histological changes were observed in Gingival epithelial layer, and the thickness of the Gingival epithelial layer as well as the number of epithelial cells were quantified. To investigate the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Gingival tissues, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed. To confirm the anti-inflammatory Effects of AD, pro-inflammatory mediators including cytokines and NF-kB, COX-2, and iNOS were analyzed in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.
Results

Topical application of AD attenuated not only the thickness of epithelial layer, also the number of epithelial cells in Gingival tissue. The expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ in gingiva were significantly reduced by AD treatment. Additionally, the expressions of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-γ mRNA were Inhibited by AD in LPS-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Furthermore, AD treatment decreased LPS-induced elevation of NF-κB, COX-2 and iNOS protein levels in RAW264.7 cells.
Conclusion

Taken together, AD application ameliorated the hyperplasia of Gingival epithelial layer by down-regulating pro-inflammatory mediators. AD might have therapeutic Potentials for Periodontal Diseases.

 


Assessing the Effectiveness of Periodontitis Treatment using Syzygium Aromaticum and Angelica Dahurica


Abstract

Objects: to assess the effectiveness of Periodontitis treatment using syzygium aromaticum and angelica dahurica.

Methods: descriptive – comparative design.

Results: the conditions of Gum tissue was well improved after treatment. After 1-4 weeks of treatment, the percentages of good, medium and poor effectiveness were respectively 59.9%, 32.7%, 7.4%. OHI-S index was improved significantly after 1-4 weeks after treatment, the percentages of good, medium and poor effectiveness were respectively 68.8%, 22.3% and 8.9%. The decreasing of Periodontal attachment loss after 1 and 4 weeks of treatment were respectively 0.11mm and 0.08mm (p>0.05). The decreasing of the depth of Periodontal pocket after 1 and 4 weeks of treatment were respectively 0.32mm and 0.25mm (p>0.05).

Conclusions: Conservation treatment for Periodontitis using the Mouthwash Extracted from syzygium aromaticum and angelica dahurica was remarkably effective in improving Periodontal indexes, such as decreasing of the depth of Periodontal pocket, improving the Gum indexes and Oral hygiene at the time after treatment.



Angelica sinensis Extract


Angelica sinensis polysaccharide Promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human Dental Pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) by activating the wnt/β-catenin pathway


Abstract

Human Dental Pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) are capable of forming mineralized nodules. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs are very important for alleviating Tooth defects caused by related Diseases. Angelica polysaccharide (ASP) is the main bioactive ingredient Extracted from the angelica Root. ASP has a variety of biological functions, including immune regulation, antitumor activity, and hematopoiesis. However, its possible Effects on hDPSCs are still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of ASP in Periodontal Diseases. We found that ASP Promoted the proliferation of hDPSCs and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. We further found that it Promoted the expression of osteogenic-related genes, including ALP, RUNX2, Col1a1, and OCN. Mechanically, we found that ASP activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In conclusion, our results suggested that ASP Promoted the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.


Effect of SBD.4A – a defined multicomponent preparation of Angelica sinensis – in Periodontal Regeneration models


Periodontitis is a major cause of Tooth motility and loss, resulting in destruction of the supporting structures of the Tooth, including Periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone. Periodontal surgery can slow the progression of the Disease, but is costly, invasive, limited by contraindications and technique-sensitive. Recently, non-invasive pharmacological treatments using proteinaceous biologicals have become available. Here, for the first time, the bone-regenerative capabilities of a non-proteinaceous biological – SBD.4A – a novel, stable multicomponent growth factor isolated from a medicinal Plant Angelica sinensis are reported. SBD.4A was tested in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation systems, as well as in a fibroblast-secreted hyaluronic acid assay. Furthermore, SBD.4A was formulated in a slow release matrix and tested in the rat calvarial defect model. Apart from the previously reported strong stimulation of angiogenesis, fibroblast growth and collagen synthesis – the activities needed for Periodontal Regeneration – SBD.4A enhanced the deposition of hyaluronic acid and proliferation of osteoblasts in vitro, as well as bone Regeneration in the rat calvarial defect model. Together, these results indicate the beneficial effect of SBD.4 on Periodontal ligament and bone Regeneration making the case for further development of this botanical growth factor.


 


Arctium lappa L.Extract


In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Arctium lappa as a phytotherapeutic agent used in intracanal dressings


The discovery of Natural biocomponents from Plants with antibacterial activity on endodontic microbiota may lead to new therapies. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of a phytotherapeutic agent prepared from an ethyl acetate fraction (AcOEt) Extracted from Arctium lappa. This agent was compared with calcium hydroxide as an intracanal dressing. Twenty-seven maxillary canines were instrumented, sterilized and inoculated with a mixed bacterial suspension of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus Mutans and Candida albicans. The Teeth were divided into three groups and their canals filled with: group 1, calcium hydroxide and propylene glycol; group 2, a paste containing AcOEt fraction of A. lappa and propylene glycol; group 3, propylene glycol (control). At 7, 14 and 30 days, three Teeth from each group were opened and a paper point was placed in the Root canal for 5 min. The paper points were transferred to Petri dishes with Brain Heart Infusion (BHI). The bacterial growth was classified. Mild bacterial growth was found in group 1 at all time intervals; in group 2 there was severe growth at 7 days, but no growth at 14 and 30 days. The phytotherapeutic agent Extracted from an AcOEt fraction of A. lappa Inhibited the growth of all the Microorganisms in this study.


Antimicrobial activity of Arctium lappa constituents against Microorganisms commonly found in endodontic infections


This study evaluated in vitro the Antimicrobial activity of rough Extracts from leaves of Arctium lappa and their phases. The following Microorganisms, commonly found in the Oral Cavity, specifically in endodontic infections, were used: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. The agar-diffusion method allowed detection of the hexanic phase as an Inhibitor of microbial growth. Bioautographic assays identified Antimicrobial substances in the Extract. The results showed the existence, in the rough hexanic phase and in its fractions, of constituents that have retention factors (Rf) in three distinct zones, thereby suggesting the presence of active constituents with chemical structures of different polarities that exhibited specificity against the target Microorganisms. It may be concluded that the Arctium lappa constituents exhibited a great microbial Inhibition Potential against the tested endodontic Pathogens.


Control of Microorganisms of Oral Health interest with Arctium lappa L. (burdock) Extract non-cytotoxic to cell culture of macrophages (RAW 264.7)


Objectives

To evaluate the Antimicrobial activity of Arctium lappa L. Extract on Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus Mutans, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. In addition, the cytotoxicity of this Extract was analyzed on macrophages (RAW 264.7).
Design

By broth microdilution method, different concentrations of the Extract (250–0.4 mg/mL) were used in order to determine the minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) in planktonic cultures and the most effective concentration was used on Biofilms on discs made of acrylic resin. The cytotoxicity A. lappa L. Extract MMC was evaluated on RAW 264.7 by MTT assay and the quantification of IL-1β and TNF-α by ELISA.
Results

The most effective concentration was 250 mg/mL and also Promoted significant reduction (log10) in the Biofilms of S. aureus (0.438 ± 0.269), S. epidermidis (0.377 ± 0.298), S. Mutans (0.244 ± 0.161) and C. albicans (0.746 ± 0.209). Cell viability was similar to 100%. The Production of IL-1β was similar to the control group (p > 0.05) and there was Inhibition of TNF-α (p < 0.01).
Conclusions

A. lappa L. Extract was microbicidal for all the evaluated strains in planktonic cultures, microbiostatic for Biofilms and not cytotoxic to the macrophages.


 


astilbin, a flavanone compound Extracted from Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae


Astilbin Inhibits the Activity of Sortase A from Streptococcus Mutans


Streptococcus Mutans (S. Mutans) is the primary etiological agent of Dental Caries. The S. Mutans enzyme sortase A (SrtA) is responsible for anchoring bacterial cell wall surface proteins involved in host cell attachment and Biofilm formation. Thus, SrtA is an attractive target for Inhibiting Dental Caries caused by S. Mutans-associated acid fermentation. In this study, we observed that astilbin, a flavanone compound Extracted from Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae, has Potent Inhibitory activity against the S. Mutans SrtA, with an IC50 of 7.5 μg/mL. In addition, astilbin was proven to reduce the formation of Biofilm while without affecting the growth of S. Mutans. The results of a molecular dynamics simulation and a mutation analysis revealed that the Arg213, Leu111, and Leu116 of SrtA are important for the interaction between SrtA and astilbin. The results of this study demonstrate the Potential of using astilbin as a nonbactericidal agent to modulate pathogenicity of S. Mutans by Inhibiting the activity of SrtA.


 


Astragalus Longistylus


Effects of aqueous and methanolic Extracts of Astragalus Longistylus on growth and proliferation of human Dental Pulp stem cells


Increasing stem cell proliferation and preventing their Aging is a prerequisite for cell-based therapy. Astragalus Longistylus has been used as a medicinal Plant for centuries and is widely dispersed in Iran. In this study, the effect of aqueous and methanolic Extracts of A. Longistylus on the growth and proliferation of human Dental Pulp stem cells was investigated by MTT, BrdU and flow cytometry over 24 and 48 h. The antioxidant activity of the Extracts was also measured by DPPH method. The expression of BTG1, CCND1, and HTERT genes were also analyzed by RT-qPCR. The results of the DPPH test showed that the aqueous and methanolic Extracts at the concentration of 1000 µg/mL had 29.39% and 82.71% antioxidant activity, respectively. Both the aqueous and methanolic significantly increased the cell proliferation and DNA synthesis after 48 h as revealed by MTT and BrdU assay results. Cell cycle analysis showed that the cells arrested in the G1 phase upon treatment with both Extracts after 24 h. However, after 48 h, the number of G1 cells was reduced while the number of cells in G2/M phase approached that of the control group. Meanwhile, expression of CCND1, TERT and BTG1 was reduced after 48 h by both Extracts and increased following a 72 h treatment. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that the effect of the Extracts on the cell proliferation was somewhat decreasing during 24 h and increasing after 48 h. These Effects could be attributed to compounds such as flavonoids, polysaccharides, astragalosides, and calycosin.


Human Dental Pulp stem cells and hormesis


This paper represents the first assessment of hormetic dose responses by human Dental Pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) with particular emphasis on cell renewal (proliferation) and differentiation. Hormetic dose responses were commonly reported in this model, encompassing a broad range of chemicals, including principally pharmaceuticals (e.g., metformin and artemisinin), dietary supplements/Extracts from medicinal Plants (e.g., berberine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, and ginsenoside Rg1) and endogenous agents (e.g., ATP, TNF-α). The paper assesses mechanistic foundations of the hDPSCs hormetic dose responses for both cell proliferation and cell differentiation, study design considerations, and therapeutic implications.



Azadiratcha Indica (Neem)


Herbal Medications in Endodontics and Its Application—A Review of Literature


Abstract: Herbal Products are gaining popularity in Dental and medical practice nowadays due to
their biocompatibility, higher Antimicrobial activity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Herbal medicine has experienced rapid growth in recent years due to its beneficial properties, ease
of availability, and lack of side Effects. As pathogenic Bacteria become more resistant to antibiotics
and chemotherapeutic agents, researchers are becoming more interested in alternative Products
and treatment choices for Oral Diseases. As a result, Natural phytochemicals separated from Plants
and utilized in traditional medicine are suitable substitutes for synthetic chemicals. The aim of this
review article is to list and understand several herbal alternatives that are currently accessible for
use as efficient endodontic medicaments. The herbal Products used in endodontics have several
advantages, including safety, ease of use, increased storability, low cost, and a lack of microbial
tolerance. However, preclinical and clinical testing and interactions with other materials and adverse
Effects are required for these herbal Products.


Azadirachta indica: A herbal panacea in dentistry – An update


Azadirachta indica commonly known as Neem, is an evergreen tree. Since time immemorial it has been used by Indian people for treatment of various Diseases due to its medicinal properties. It possesses anti-bacterial, anti-cariogenic, anti-helminthic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, astringent, anti-viral, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activity. Nimbidin, Azadirachtin and nimbinin are active compounds present in Neem which are responsible for antibacterial activity. Neem bark is used as an active ingredient in a number of Toothpastes and Toothpowders. Neem bark has anti-bacterial properties, it is quite useful in dentistry for curing Gingival problems and maintaining Oral Health in a Natural way. Neem twigs are used as Oral deodorant, Toothache reliever and for Cleaning of Teeth. The objective of this article is to focus on the various aspects of Azadirachta indica in dentistry in order to provide a tool for future research.


The Inhibiting effect of Azadirachta indica against Dental Pathogens


The present study was carried out to evaluate the Antimicrobial properties of neem Extract against three bacterial strains causing Dental Caries using disc diffusion method. The pathogenic Bacteria such as Streptococcus Mutans, Streptococcus salivarious and Fusobacterium nucleatum were isolated from Dental Caries. The organic Extracts of neem were prepared using different solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and distilled water and were screened for its Antimicrobial activity. Among the four Extracts of neem, petroleum ether and chloroform Extract showed strong Antimicrobial activity against S. Mutans with Inhibition zone of 18 mm at 500 µg concentrations. Chloroform Extract of neem showed strong activity against Streptococcus salivarius with Inhibition zone of 18 mm. The third strain Fusobacterium nucleatum was highly sensitive to both ethanol and water Extract of neems with Inhibition zone of 16 mm. The results demonstrate that the chloroform Extracts of neem has a strong Antimicrobial activity and suggest that it can be useful in the treatment of Dental Caries.


Evaluation of antiPlaque activity of Azadirachta indica leaf Extract gel—a 6-week clinical study


Various chemical agents have been evaluated over the years with respect to their Antimicrobial Effects in the Oral Cavity; however, all are associated with side Effects that prohibit regular long-term use. Therefore, the effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) leaf Extract against Plaque formation was assessed in males between the age group of 20–30 years over a period of 6 weeks. Present study includes formulation of mucoadhesive Dental gel containing Azadirachta indica leaf Extract (25 mg/g). A 6-week clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of neem Extract Dental gel with commercially available chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% w/v) Mouthwash as positive control. Microbial evaluation of Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacilli species was carried out to determine the total decrease in the salivary bacterial count over a period of treatment using a semi-quantitative four quadrant streaking method. The results of the study suggested that the Dental gel containing neem Extract has significantly (P<0.05) reduced the Plaque index and bacterial count than that of the control group.



Baicalin


Herbal Medications in Endodontics and Its Application—A Review of Literature


Herbal Products are gaining popularity in Dental and medical practice nowadays due to
their biocompatibility, higher Antimicrobial activity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Herbal medicine has experienced rapid growth in recent years due to its beneficial properties, ease
of availability, and lack of side Effects. As pathogenic Bacteria become more resistant to antibiotics
and chemotherapeutic agents, researchers are becoming more interested in alternative Products
and treatment choices for Oral Diseases. As a result, Natural phytochemicals separated from Plants
and utilized in traditional medicine are suitable substitutes for synthetic chemicals. The aim of this
review article is to list and understand several herbal alternatives that are currently accessible for
use as efficient endodontic medicaments. The herbal Products used in endodontics have several
advantages, including safety, ease of use, increased storability, low cost, and a lack of microbial
tolerance. However, preclinical and clinical testing and interactions with other materials and adverse
Effects are required for these herbal Products.


Protective role of flavonoid baicalin from Scutellaria baicalensis in Periodontal Disease pathogenesis: A literature review


Introduction

Periodontal Disease is characterized by a chronic infection, leading to the irreversible destruction of tissues supporting the Teeth. Bacteria, pro-inflammatory mediators and host immune response play important role in the progress of Periodontal Disease. Baicalin is a bioactive flavone Extracted from the dry raw Root of Scutellaria baicalensis, with pharmaceutical actions of anti-Inflammation, anti-oxidants, anti-tumor, antivirus, and so on. The present review summarizes the efficacy of baicalin in Periodontal treatment.

Methods

A computer-based literature search was carried out using Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science to identify papers published until 2017. Keywords used in the search were “baicalin”/“baicalein” and various words related to Periodontal Disease (Periodontal, Periodontitis, Periodontal tissue, Gingival, Gingivitis, Gingival tissue, Periodontal Disease, Gingival Disease, gingiva, periodontium).

Results

A total of 28 original studies were found, including 3 bacteriological studies, 7 zoological studies and 18 cytological studies. 15 of them were published in English and 13 of them were published in Chinese. Results from these 28 studies could not be pooled to conduct meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity. The pharmacological properties and mechanisms of baicalin for treating Periodontal Disease is mainly focused on five aspects: antibacterial effect on putative periodontopathic Bacteria, protective effect on Periodontal tissues, regulatory effect on pro-inflammatory mediators and matrix metalloproteinases, and regulatory effect on innate immune response.

Conclusions

Baicalin have been shown to possess multiple pharmacological activities in Periodontal tissues. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully defined. Further researches are needed to provide more scientific evidence for the clinical Periodontal treatment.


Response of Human Periodontal Ligament Cells to Baicalin


Background: Periodontitis is the most common cause of Tooth loss in adults. Periodontal ligament cell (PLC)–based therapy is considered one of the most promising methods in Periodontal tissue Regeneration. The traditional Chinese medicine baicalin has been shown to possess Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities and enhance cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the response of human PLCs (HPLCs) to baicalin.

Methods: The effect of baicalin on cultured HPLC proliferation was measured with a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The effect of baicalin on the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), core binding factor α1 (Cbfα1), and osteocalcin (OC) was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunodetection.

Results: Baicalin at a concentration of 0.01 μg/mL Promoted HPLC proliferation, upregulated OPG messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression, and downregulated RANKL mRNA and protein expression. In addition to reducing the RANKL/OPG expression ratio significantly, it also increased Cbfα1 and OC mRNA and protein expression.

Conclusion: Baicalin showed multifaceted regulation of genes with important roles in tissue growth and differentiation, and thus it has the Potential to be a promising candidate for HPLC-based Periodontal Regeneration therapy.


Protective Effects of baicalin on ligature-induced Periodontitis in rats


Background and Objective: Baicalin is a flavonoid compound purified from the medicinal Plant, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of baicalin to influence the progression of experimental Periodontitis in rats, as well as the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase.

Material and Methods: Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to placement of a nylon thread around the bilateral lower first molars and killed after 7 d. Baicalin (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) was supplied to the animals by Oral gavage, starting 1 d before the induction of Periodontitis. The ligature group consisted of rats subjected to Periodontitis and receiving vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose) alone. The alveolar bone loss and the area fraction occupied by collagen fibers were assessed. The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein in the gingiva were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting.

Results: Baicalin-treated groups presented with lower alveolar bone loss than that of the ligature group, reaching statistical significance at the dose of 200 mg/kg (p = 0.009). The area fraction of collagen fibers was significantly higher in the baicalin (200 mg/kg)-treated group than in the ligature group (p = 0.047). Baicalin treatment significantly down-regulated the protein expression for cyclooxygenase-2 (p = 0.000) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (p = 0.003), compared with the ligature group.

Conclusion: Baicalin protects against tissue damage in ligature-induced Periodontitis in rats, which might be mediated, in part, by its Inhibitory effect on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. These activities could support the continued investigation of baicalin as a Potential therapeutic agent in Periodontal Disease.


 


Bitter Guard (Momordica charantia)


COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF Antimicrobial EFFICACY OF BITTER GUARD (MOMORDICA CHARANTIA) & GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) AS ENDODONTIC IRRIGANTS AGAINST E.FAECALIS-AN IN VITRO STUDY


One of the most important objectives of Root canal treatment is
the elimination of Microorganisms from the Root canal system.
Persistent endodontic infections are mainly due to retention of
microorganism in the Dentinal tubules. Enterococcus faecalis is th e
primary organism detected in persistent asymptomatic infections. The
most effective method for eliminating E. faecalis from the Root canal
space and Dentinal tubules is the use of Sodium hypochlorite and 2%
Chlorhexidine. Due to the disadvantages of thes e irrigants like toxicity
and synthetic concern, consumption of preparations from medicinal
Plants has increased over the last few decades.


Effects of Diospyros kaki peel, Momordica charantia, and Canavalia gladiata Extracts on the cariogenic traits of Streptococcus Mutans


Objectives
The purpose of this study is to determine methods of Dental Caries Prevention by investigating the use of compounds of Diospyros kaki (D. kaki) peel, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), and Canavalia gladiata (C. gladiata) Extracts to limit the cariogenic traits of Streptococcus Mutans (S. Mutans), such as their ability to proliferate and adhere to the Tooth surface.
Methods
Broth microdilution and the agar spreading assay were used to determine the Antimicrobial effect and minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of S. Mutans Extracts. In order to identify the adhesive ability of S. Mutans at varying concentrations, culture plates were first stained with 1 ml of 0.01% crystal violet for 15 minutes at room temperature, and then eluted with 1 ml of EtOH:Acetone (8:2) solution for 15 minutes in a 37℃ incubator. Eluted solutions were then evaluated by use of a spectrophotometer at 575 nm.
Results
Experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effectiveness of D. kaki peel, M. charantia, and C. gladiata Extracts on limiting the proliferation of S. Mutans. The MIC was measured as an indication of whether the antibacterial activity of D. kaki peel, M. charantia, and C. gladiata Extracts had a significant bacteriostatic effect on S. Mutans. M. charantia Extract was effective for growth Inhibition on S. Mutans at a minimum concentration of 0.25%. From the adhesion ability assay, M. charantia Extract had an anti-adhesive effect.
Conclusions
These results indicate that M. charantia Extract demonstrates antibacterial activity and has an anti-adhesive effect on S. Mutans. Due to these properties, M. charantia Extract may be used to Prevent Dental Caries.



Bletilla striata


Bletilla striata Polysaccharides Improve Hemostatic, Antiinflammatory Efficacy, and Platelet Aggregation in Gingivitis Rat Model


In this study, the bioactivity of the Bletilla striata polysaccharides (BSPS) on platelet aggregation and anti-Inflammation is investigated. For this purpose, a physiological system in vitro is established to evaluate the hemostatic effect of BSPS by measuring the platelet aggregation (PAG) rate, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and thromboxane B2 (TXB2). A quantifiable inflammatory model of human Gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) is established by inducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of BSPS. An experimental Gingivitis rat model in vivo is set up to further verify hemostatic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of BSPS, which is comprehensively evaluated through the following five techniques: X-ray morphological observation, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining analysis, probe index (Plaque index, Gingival index, bleeding on probing) diagnostic evaluation, immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG), and cytokines. Interestingly, the changes of cytokines in vivo are in accordance with those in vitro. The positive Effects of BSPS in hemostasis and anti-Inflammation are also confirmed by X-ray observation and HE staining. The above results demonstrate that BSPS Promotes platelet aggregation with an anti-inflammatory effect, which suggests that the BSPS may be beneficial in the treatment of hemostasis and inflammatory Diseases.


Procyanidins and Their Therapeutic Potential against Oral Diseases


Procyanidins, as a kind of dietary flavonoid, have excellent pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties, and so they can be used to treat various Diseases, including Alzheimer’s Disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, tumors, and obesity. Given the low bioavailability of procyanidins, great efforts have been made in drug delivery systems to address their limited use. Nowadays, the heavy burden of Oral Diseases such as Dental Caries, Periodontitis, endodontic infections, etc., and their consequences on the patients’ quality of life indicate a strong need for developing effective therapies. Recent years, plenty of efforts are being made to develop more effective treatments. Therefore, this review summarized the latest researches on versatile Effects and enhanced bioavailability of procyanidins resulting from innovative drug delivery systems, particularly focused on its Potential against Oral Diseases.



Boswellia carterii Birdw.Extract


Microencapsulated frankincense essential oil: a Potential remedy and Prevention of Mouth Diseases


The global burden of Disease studies estimated that Oral Diseases affected half of the world’s population (3.58 billion people) with Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) in permanent Teeth being the most prevalent condition assessed. On the other hand, the increasing resistance of Dental Caries towards the available Antimicrobials and extensive use of the controversial synthetic chemicals to overcome these problems have attracted the scientific community’s attention to the search for new cost-effective remedies of Natural Products. Frankincense or Boswellia species are highly import-ant aromatic Plants belonging to the Burseraceae family. The present study will focus on an in-vitro anti-inflamma-tion and anti-bacterial activity of Boswellia carterii (BC) Essential oil (EO) encapsulated into the Gum Arabic (GA) polymer. Thus, certain Mouth pathogenic Bacteria, which are the main contributors to Dental Caries and Gingivitis, namely (Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacillus species), and their in-vitro responses to the defined micro-particles, will pave the way to introduce a new Potential remedy to the forth mentioned problems.


Effect of Using Boswellia Sacra Extract as Final Irrigant on Removal of Smear Layer


Purpose: To evaluate the impact of 10% Boswellia sacra water Extract (B. sacra) as a final irrigant on smear layer removal consequent to primary irrigation with 2.6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Material and Methods: Thirty-six palatal &distal Roots from Extracted maxillary & mandibular molars have being instrumented and categorized into 3 experimental groups depending on the final irrigant used: (12 samples each), Group I: irrigated with 10% B. sacra Extract. Group II: irrigated with 17% EDTA. Group III: control group irrigated with sterile saline. Irrigation was performed with 5ml of test substances for 1 minute. Scanning electron microscopic analysis was performed to assess smear layer removal on the coronal, middle, and apical portion for each Root canal. Results: no statistically significant difference between using 10% B. sacra Extract & 17% EDTA for smear layer removal at the entire Root canal levels (P=0.000). However, there was statistically significant difference between tested irrigant (10% B. sacra Extract & 17% EDTA) compared to control group. Comparison of the capability to remove smear layer among different Root canal levels for each group showed a significant difference in smear layer removal on coronal and apical part for all assessed groups. Conclusion: The current in-vitro study demonstrated that 10% B. sacra water Extract have a chelating Potential similar to that of EDTA 17%. Boswellia sacra as Natural Product is a promising chelating agent.


AN ALTERNATIVE THERAPEUTIC STRATEGY FOR Root CANAL DisinfectION


Aim of the study : This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of
Boswellic acids (BA) as Root canal irrigation solution with Sodium hypochlorite, Chlorhexidine.

Materials and Methods:
forty five patients having single Rooted Teeth with single canal
diagnosed as necrotic Pulps with chronic apical Periodontitis were included in the study. bacterial

samples were taken from the Root canal before preparation (S1) , Post instrumentation sample S2

after using the tested irrigants. All samples collected were transferred directly for microbiological

analysis, and cultured on blood agar plates in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the bacterial

growth was counted as colony forming units (CFUs) using manual counting technique. The anti-

bacterial effectiveness of the tested materials was evaluated by the decrease in the CFUs from

S1 to S2.

Results:
NaOCl, CHX, and BA solutions showed significant reduction in the bacterial count
from S1 to S2 (P < 0.05) with no significant difference between them P=0.136. Cleaning and

shaping resulted in > 99.5% decrease in the count of Bacteria from S1 to S2 samples.

Conclusions:
BA could be considered as a promising Root canal irrigant owing to its comparable
antibacterial effect with the most commonly used Root canal irrigants (NaOCl, CHX). BA gel

reduced the possibility of post-operative pain compared to the other medicaments.



Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE)


antibacterial Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Cariogenic Bacteria and Streptococcus Mutans Biofilms


Dental Caries is the most common Disease in the human Mouth. Streptococcus Mutans is the primary cariogenic bacterium. Propolis is a nontoxic Natural Product with a strong Inhibitory effect on Oral cariogenic Bacteria. The polyphenol-rich Extract from propolis Inhibits S. Mutans growth and Biofilm formation, as well as the genes involved in virulence and adherence, through the Inhibition of glucosyltransferases (GTF). However, because the chemical composition of propolis is highly variable and complex, the mechanism of its Antimicrobial action and the active compound are controversial and not completely understood. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is abundant in the polyphenolic compounds from propolis, and it has many pharmacological Effects. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial Effects of CAPE on common Oral cariogenic Bacteria (Streptococcus Mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Actinomyces viscosus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and its Effects on the Biofilm-forming and cariogenic abilities of S. Mutans. CAPE shows remarkable Antimicrobial activity against cariogenic Bacteria. Moreover, CAPE also Inhibits the formation of S. Mutans Biofilms and their metabolic activity in mature Biofilms. Furthermore, CAPE can Inhibit the key virulence factors of S. Mutans associated with cariogenicity, including acid Production, acid tolerance, and the bacterium’s ability to produce extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), without affecting bacterial viability at subInhibitory levels. In conclusion, CAPE appears to be a new agent with Anticariogenic Potential, not only via Inhibition of the growth of cariogenic Bacteria.


Additive Manufacturing of Caffeic Acid-Inspired Mineral Trioxide Aggregate/Poly-ε-Caprolactone Scaffold for Regulating Vascular Induction and Osteogenic Regeneration of Dental Pulp Stem Cells


Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a common biomaterial used in endodontics Regeneration due to its antibacterial properties, good biocompatibility and high bioactivity. Surface modification technology allows us to endow biomaterials with the necessary biological targets for activation of specific downstream functions such as promoting angiogenesis and osteogenesis. In this study, we used caffeic acid (CA)-coated MTA/polycaprolactone (PCL) composites and fabricated 3D scaffolds to evaluate the influence on the physicochemical and biological aspects of CA-coated MTA scaffolds. As seen from the results, modification of CA does not change the original structural characteristics of MTA, thus allowing us to retain the properties of MTA. CA-coated MTA scaffolds were shown to have 25% to 55% higher results than bare scaffold. In addition, CA-coated MTA scaffolds were able to significantly adsorb more vascular endothelial growth factors (p < 0.05) secreted from human Dental Pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). More importantly, CA-coated MTA scaffolds not only Promoted the adhesion and proliferation behaviors of hDPSCs, but also enhanced angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Finally, CA-coated MTA scaffolds led to enhanced subsequent in vivo bone Regeneration of the femur of rabbits, which was confirmed using micro-computed tomography and histological staining. Taken together, CA can be used as a Potently functional bioactive coating for various scaffolds in bone tissue engineering and other biomedical applications in the future.


In Vitro Activity of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester against Different Oral Microorganisms


This was an in vitro study that aimed to evaluate the Antimicrobial effect of the propolis Extract caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on four different Oral Microorganisms. Seven different concentrations of CAPE (0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 mg/mL) for use against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus Mutans, Streptococcus Oralis, and Streptococcus salivarius were determined using minimum Inhibition concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), broth microdilution, and well diffusion tests over 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, while NaF at 0.05 percent was used as a positive control. Staphylococcus aureus was most affected by CAPE’s Inhibitory effect on bacterial growth, whereas S. Mutans was the least affected. S. Mutans and S. Oralis had similar CAPE MIC and MBC values of 1 mg/mL and 1.5 mg/mL, respectively. The most resistant Bacteria to CAPE were S. salivarius and S. aureus, with MIC and MBC values of 3 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively. S. Oralis, followed by S. salivarius, S. Mutans, and S. aureus, had the highest viable count following exposure to CAPE’s MBC values, while S. aureus had the lowest. The current results of the Inhibitory effect of CAPE on bacterial growth are promising, and the values of both CAPE MBC and MIC against the related four cariogenic bacterial organisms are significant. CAPE can be employed as an adjunct Dental hygiene substance for maintaining good Oral hygiene, and has a Potential therapeutic effect in the field of Oral Health care.


Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) Induces VEGF Expression and Production in Rat Odontoblastic Cells


Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), the main component of propolis, has various biological activities including anti-inflammatory effect and wound healing promotion. Odontoblasts located in the outermost layer of Dental Pulp play crucial roles such as Production of growth factors and formation of hard tissue termed reparative Dentin in host defense against Dental Caries. In this study, we investigated the Effects of CAPE on the upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and calcification activities of odontoblasts, leading to development of novel therapy for Dental Pulp Inflammation caused by Dental Caries. CAPE significantly induced mRNA expression and Production of VEGF in rat clonal odontoblast-like KN-3 cells cultured in normal medium or osteogenic induction medium. CAPE treatment enhanced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor activation, and furthermore, the specific Inhibitor of NF-κB significantly reduced VEGF Production. The expression of VEGF receptor- (VEGFR-) 2, not VEGFR-1, was up regulated in KN-3 cells treated with CAPE. In addition, VEGF significantly increased mineralization activity in KN-3 cells. These findings suggest that CAPE might be useful as a novel biological material for the Dental Pulp conservative therapy.


antibacterial Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Cariogenic Bacteria and Streptococcus Mutans Biofilms


Dental Caries is the most common Disease in the human Mouth. Streptococcus Mutans is the primary cariogenic bacterium. Propolis is a nontoxic Natural Product with a strong Inhibitory effect on Oral cariogenic Bacteria. The polyphenol-rich Extract from propolis Inhibits S. Mutans growth and Biofilm formation, as well as the genes involved in virulence and adherence, through the Inhibition of glucosyltransferases (GTF). However, because the chemical composition of propolis is highly variable and complex, the mechanism of its Antimicrobial action and the active compound are controversial and not completely understood. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is abundant in the polyphenolic compounds from propolis, and it has many pharmacological Effects. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial Effects of CAPE on common Oral cariogenic Bacteria (Streptococcus Mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Actinomyces viscosus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus) and its Effects on the Biofilm-forming and cariogenic abilities of S. Mutans. CAPE shows remarkable Antimicrobial activity against cariogenic Bacteria. Moreover, CAPE also Inhibits the formation of S. Mutans Biofilms and their metabolic activity in mature Biofilms. Furthermore, CAPE can Inhibit the key virulence factors of S. Mutans associated with cariogenicity, including acid Production, acid tolerance, and the bacterium’s ability to produce extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), without affecting bacterial viability at subInhibitory levels. In conclusion, CAPE appears to be a new agent with Anticariogenic Potential, not only via Inhibition of the growth of cariogenic Bacteria.



Carvacrol


Antimicrobial Activity of Carvacrol against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei, An In-Vitro Study


Background & Aims: Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) and Lactobacillus casei L. casei) are the primary bacterial
Pathogens involved in Dental Caries and Periodontal Diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the Antimicrobial activity of
Carvacrol in Inhibiting the growth of these two microbial species invitro.
Materials & Methods: In this study, we prepared standard colonies of L. acidophilus and L. casei, then evaluated disk diffusion and
well diffusion tests on De ManRugose and Sharpe (MRS) agar plates to determine the Antimicrobial activity of Carvacrol. We used
30 μg tetracycline disks as control. To evaluate the minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC), Carvacrol was used in the range of 20
to 0.039 μL in MRS broth medium containing Bacteria. To determine the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), the contents
of tubes were subsequently cultured on MRS agar plates.
Results: The MIC and MBC of Carvacrol against L. casei were 0.406 ± 0.143 and 0.813 ± 0.287 μg/mL, and against L. acidophilus
were 0.254 ± 0.072 and 0.406 ± 0.143 μg/mL, respectively. In the disk diffusion test, carvacrol solution (2%) significantly induced
Inhibitory zones against L. casei and L. acidophilus. Although In the well diffusion test, 2% carvacrol solution generated Inhibitory
zones against L. casei. and against L. acidophilus with detectableInhibitory zones, but they werer not statistically significant.. We
noted a significant difference only for the volume of 80 μL of solution (p = 0.03).
Conclusion: The present study indicated that Carvacrol could be used as a natural alternative agent against L. acidophilus and L.
casei generated Dental Caries


Protective effect of locally applied carvacrol gel on ligature-induced Periodontitis in rats: a tapping mode AFM study


The aims of this study were to test a locally applied carvacrol gel and determine its efficacy preventing alveolar bone loss in experimental Periodontitis in rats by regular methodology to validate applicability the atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a novel morphology method on this model. Wistar rats were subjected to ligature around second, upper-left molars. Animals were treated carvacrol gel topically (CAG), immediately after Experimental Periodontitis Disease induction for 1′ three-times/day for 11 days. A vehicle gel was utilized as control. The periodontium and the surrounding gingivae were examined at regular histopathology and by AFM method; the neutrophil influx into the gingivae was also assayed using myeloperoxidase activity. The bacterial flora was assessed through culture of the Gingival tissue. Alveolar bone loss was significantly Inhibited by CAG group compared to the Vehicle (V) group, the carvacrol gel treatment reduced tissue lesion at histopathology, with preservation of the periodontium, coupled to decreased myeloperoxidase activity in Gingival tissue and also Prevented the proliferation of Periodontal Microorganisms and the weight loss. The GAC treatment preserved alveolar bone resorption and showed anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities in experimental Periodontitis. Topographical changes in histological sections were seen bringing into high relief the Periodontal structures, being a simple and cost-effective method for Periodontal evaluation with ultrastructural resolution.


Carvacrol Ameliorates Ligation-Induced Periodontitis in Rats


Background: This study aims to evaluate the ameliorative effect of carvacrol, an anti-inflammatory monoterpenoid phenol and a major component of Plectranthus amboinicus, on Periodontal damage in an experimental rat model of Periodontitis.

Methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into ligation (Lig), non-ligation (n-Lig), and two ligation plus carvacrol (Lig+C) groups. Carvacrol (17.5 or 35.0 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered intragastrically from 1 day before ligation. On day 8, Dental alveolar bone loss and Gingival Inflammation in Periodontal specimens were examined by Dental radiography, microcomputed tomography, and histology. Expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger (m)RNAs, and levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in gingiva were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and zymography.

Results: Dental radiography revealed Periodontal bone-supporting ratios in Lig and Lig+C groups were lower than the n-Lig group, with Lig group ratios being lowest. Compared with the n-Lig group, the cemento-Enamel junction–bone distance was significantly longer in Lig and Lig+C groups, with Lig+C groups showing shorter distances regardless of radiographic methods used. Histology and histometry showed less inflammatory area and stronger connective tissue attachment in Lig+C groups than in the Lig group. Cytokine/mediator mRNA expression and MMP-9 levels were reduced in the Lig+C groups.

Conclusions: Carvacrol reduced tissue damage and bone loss caused by ligation-induced Periodontitis. The present results indicate that carvacrol might reduce tissue destruction by downregulating expression of proinflammatory mediators and MMP-9.


Thymol and carvacrol induce autolysis, stress, growth Inhibition and reduce the Biofilm formation by Streptococcus Mutans


Organic compounds from Plants are an attractive alternative to conventional Antimicrobial agents. Therefore, two compounds namely M-1 and M-2 were purified from Origanum vulgare L. and were identified as carvacrol and thymol, respectively. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of these compounds along with chlorhexidine digluconate using various assays was determined against Dental Caries causing Bacteria Streptococcus Mutans. The IC50 values of carvacrol (M-1) and thymol (M-2) against S. mutans were 65 and 54 µg/ml, respectively. Live and dead staining and the MTT assays reveal that a concentration of 100 µg/ml of these compounds reduced the viability and the metabolic activity of S. mutans by more than 50%. Biofilm formation on the surface of polystyrene plates was significantly reduced by M-1 and M-2 at 100 µg/ml as observed under scanning electron microscope and by colorimetric assay. These results were in agreement with RT-PCR studies. Wherein exposure to 25 µg/ml of M-1 and M-2 showed a 2.2 and 2.4-fold increase in Autolysin gene (AtlE) expression level, respectively. While an increase of 1.3 and 1.4 fold was observed in the super oxide dismutase gene (sodA) activity with the same concentrations of M-1 and M-2, respectively. An increase in the ymcA gene and a decrease in the gtfB gene expression levels was observed following the treatment with M-1 and M-2. These results strongly suggest that carvacrol and thymol isolated from O. vulgare L. exhibit good bactericidal and antibiofilm activity against S. mutans and can be used as a green alternative to control Dental Caries.



Chitosan


Design and characterization of a chitosan-enriched fibrin hydrogel for human Dental Pulp Regeneration


Objective

Regenerating a functional Dental Pulp in the Pulpectomized Root canal has been recently proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy in dentistry. To reach this goal, designing an appropriate scaffold able to Prevent the growth of residual endodontic Bacteria, while supporting Dental Pulp tissue neoformation, is needed. Our aim was to create an innovative cellularized fibrin hydrogel supplemented with chitosan to confer this hydrogel antibacterial property.
Methods

Several fibrin–chitosan formulations were first screened by rheological analyses, and the most appropriate for clinical use was then studied in terms of microstructure (by scanning electron microscopy), Antimicrobial effect (analysis of Enterococcus fæcalis growth), Dental Pulp-mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (DP-MSC) viability and spreading after 7 days of culture (LiveDead® test), DP-MSC ultrastructure and extracellular matrix deposition (transmission electron microscopy), and DP-MSC proliferation and collagen Production (RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry).
Results

A formulation associating 10 mg/mL fibrinogen and 0.5% (w/w), 40% degree of acetylation, medium molar mass chitosan was found to be relevant in order to forming a fibrin–chitosan hydrogel at cytocompatible pH (# 7.2). Comparative analysis of fibrin-alone and fibrin–chitosan hydrogels revealed a Potent antibacterial effect of the chitosan in the fibrin network, and similar DP-MSC viability, fibroblast-like morphology, proliferation rate and type I/III collagen Production capacity.
Significance

These results indicate that incorporating chitosan within a fibrin hydrogel would be beneficial to Promote human DP tissue neoformation thanks to chitosan antibacterial effect and the absence of significant detrimental effect of chitosan on Dental Pulp cell morphology, viability, proliferation and collagenous matrix Production.


Chitosan effect on Dental Enamel de-remineralization: An in vitro evaluation


Objectives

The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro effect of chitosan (concentration and time of action) treatment on Enamel de-remineralization behavior upon a pH cycling assay.

Methods

Different group of human Tooth samples were exposed to de-remineralizing solutions of controlled pH using a random experimental design. Microhardness and phosphorus chemical analysis were employed to evaluate the loss of phosphorus from the samples. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were obtained for selected specimens in order to evaluate the degree of penetration of chitosan into Enamel.

Results

Vickers microhardness results were higher for samples treated with chitosan for concentration between 2.5 mg/mL and 5.0 mg/mL and time of action between 60 s and 90 s. A maximum Inhibition of mineral loss of 81% was obtained. Chemical analysis indicated lower net pohosphorus loss (net P loss) for samples treated with chitosan. Best results were obtained in the same conditions found out with microhardness measurements. Chitosan had little effect on the remineralization process. OCT results indicated a correlation of chitosan penetration with chitosan concentration. For chitosan concentrations of 2.5 g/mL and 5.0 g/mL the penetration was up to the DentinEnamel junction.

Conclusions

Chitosan interferes with the process of demineralization of the Tooth Enamel Inhibiting the release of phosphorus in this laboratory study. Demineralization is influenced by the concentration and exposure time of the biopolymer to the Enamel. Microhardness measurements may be used as an indication of mineral loss from Tooth Enamel. Additionally, OCT images support the idea that chitosan may act as a barrier against acid penetration, contributing to its demineralization Inhibition.


antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan on representative Dental Pathogens Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacilli brevis


Dental Caries is still a major Oral Health problem in most industrialized countries. The
development of Dental Caries primarily involves Lactobacilli spp. and Streptococcus
mutans. Although antibacterial ingredients are used against Oral Bacteria to reduce
Dental Caries, some reports that show partial antibacterial ingredients could result in side
Effects. Objectives: The main objective is to test the antibacterial effect of water-soluble
chitosan while the evaluation of the Mouthwash appears as a secondary aim. Material and
Methods: The chitosan was obtained from the Application Chemistry Company (Taiwan).
The authors investigated the antibacterial Effects of water-soluble chitosan against Oral
Bacteria at different temperatures (25-37°C) and pH values (pH 5-8), and evaluated the
antibacterial activities of a self-made water-soluble chitosan-containing Mouthwash by in
vitro and in vivo experiments, and analyzed the acute toxicity of the Mouthwashes. The
acute toxicity was analyzed with the pollen tube growth (PTG) test. The growth Inhibition
values against the logarithmic scale of the test concentrations produced a concentration-
response curve. The IC50 value was calculated by interpolation from the data. Results:
The effect of the pH variation (5-8) on the antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan
against tested Oral Bacteria was not significant. The maximal antibacterial activity of
water-soluble chitosan occurred at 37°C. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)
of water-soluble chitosan on Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacilli brevis were 400 μg/mL
and 500 μg/mL, respectively. Only 5 s of contact between water-soluble chitosan and Oral
Bacteria attained at least 99.60% antibacterial activity at a concentration of 500 μg/mL.
The water-soluble chitosan-containing Mouthwash significantly demonstrated antibacterial
activity that was similar to that of commercial Mouthwashes (>99.91%) in both in vitro
and in vivo experiments. In addition, the alcohol-free Mouthwash exhibited no cytotoxicity
and no Oral stinging. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to combine
in vitro and in vivo investigations to analyze the antibacterial properties of water-soluble
chitosan-containing Mouthwash. Conclusions: This study illustrated that water-soluble
chitosan may be a viable alternative to commercial Mouthwashes in the future.



Cimicifugae Rhizoma Extract


Evaluation of the Effects of Cimicifugae Rhizoma on the morphology and viability of mesenchymal stem cells


Cimicifugae Rhizoma is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat various Diseases in Korea, China and Japan. Cimicifugae Rhizoma is primarily derived from Cimicifuga heracleifolia Komarov or Cimicifuga foetida Linnaeus. Cimicifugae Rhizoma has been used as an anti‑inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic remedy. The present study was performed to evaluate the Extracts of Cimicifugae Rhizoma on the morphology and viability of human stem cells derived from gingiva. Stem cells derived from gingiva were grown in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma at final concentrations that ranged from 0.001 to 1,000 µg/ml. The morphology of the cells was viewed under an inverted microscope and the analysis of cell proliferation was performed using a Cell Counting kit‑8 (CCK‑8) assay on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Under an optical microscope, the control cells exhibited a spindle‑shaped, fibroblast‑like morphology. The shapes of the cells in the groups treated with 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml Cimicifugae Rhizoma were similar to the shapes in the control group. Significant alterations in morphology were noted in the 100 and 1,000 µg/ml groups when compared with the control group. The cells in the 100 and 1,000 µg/ml groups were rounder, and fewer cells were present. The cultures that were grown in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma at a concentration of 0.001 µg/ml on day 1 had an increased CCK‑8 value. The cultures grown in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma at a concentration of 10 µg/ml on day 7 had a reduced CCK‑8 value. Within the limits of this study, Cimicifugae Rhizoma influenced the viability of stem cells derived from the gingiva, and its direct application onto Oral tissues may have adverse Effects at high concentrations. The concentration and application time of Cimicifugae Rhizoma should be meticulously controlled to obtain optimal results.


Effects of Cimicifugae Rhizoma on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of stem cells


Cimicifugae Rhizoma, a herb with a long history of use in traditional Oriental medicine is reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti‑complement and anticancer Effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Effects of Cimicifugae Rhizoma Extracts on the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human stem cells derived from gingiva. Stem cells derived from gingiva were grown in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma at final concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml. Cell proliferation analyses were performed at day 15. For osteogenic differentiation experiments, the stem cells were cultured in osteogenic media containing β‑glycerophosphate, ascorbic acid-2-phosphate and dexamethasone, and osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by analysis of osteocalcin expression at 21 days. For adipogenic differentiation experiments, the stem cells were grown in adipogenic induction medium, and the adipogenic differentiation was evaluated by analysis of adipocyte fatty acid‑binding protein at day 14. The cultures grown in the presence of 0.1 µg/ml Cimicifugae Rhizoma showed a significant increase in cellular proliferation at day 15 compared with the control group. The relative osteogenic differentiation in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma for the 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml groups was 171.5±13.7, 125.6±28.7 and 150.5±9.0, respectively, when that of the untreated control group on day 21 was considered to be 100%. The relative adipogenic differentiation at day 14 of the 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/ml groups in the presence of Cimicifugae Rhizoma was 97.5±15.0, 102.9±12.8 and 87.0±6.8%, respectively when that of the untreated control group on day 14 was considered to be 100%. Within the limits of this study, Cimicifugae Rhizoma increased the proliferation of stem cells derived from the gingiva, and low concentrations of Cimicifugae Rhizoma may increase the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells.


Effect of Cimicifuga rhizoma Extract on the odontoblastic differentiation of MDPC-23 cells


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the cell proliferation and expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) during the differentiation of murine odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23) by Cimicifuga rhizoma Extract. Cimicifuga rhizoma Extract was prepared using 70% ethanol. Then, the cells were treated with 25, 50, 100, 150, and of Cimicifuga rhizoma Extract. Methods: We determined the Cimicifuga rhizoma Effects of MDPC-23 using WST-1 (water soluble tetrazolium salt-1) assay, ALP activity assay and histochemical staining. Results: of Cimicifuga rhizoma Extract did not Inhibit the growth of MDPC-23 cells; , , , , , (p<0.794). of Cimicifuga rhizoma Extract stimulated ALP activity on MDPC-23; (p<0.001). Conclusions: It was proven that Cimicifuga rhizoma Promoted differentiation of MDPC- 23 cells.



Citrus reticulata Blanco peel Extract


Citric acid compounds of tangerines peel Extract (Citrus reticulata) as Potential materials Teeth whitening


Abstract

Peel of citrus fruit (Citrus reticulata) has a variety of possible chemical compounds that may serve as a Potential whitening Teeth. This research is conducted on a laboratory scale; therefore, it needs to be developed on an application scale. A quasi-experimental was employed in this study. Citric acid Extraction was carried out on the type of Sweet Orange (Citrus Aurantium L), Tangerine (Citrus Reticulata Blanco or Citrus Nobilis), Pomelo (Citrus Maxima Merr, Citrus grandis Osbeck), and Lemon (Citrus Limon Linn). Citric acid’s ability test as Teeth whitener was performed on premolar Teeth with concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 10%. The experiments were replicated in 3 times, and Teeth whiteness level was measured using Shade Guide VITA Classical. The result of this research showed that citric acid in every kind of orange peel with various concentration has different abilities on whitening Teeth. The highest colour level obtained from Tangerine peel’s citric acid concentration of 5%. Orange peel Extract has the best Teeth whitening abilities tested by the method of Gass Chromatography to know the active ingredients.


Phytochemical Screening and antibacterial Activity of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck [Orange] and Citrus aurantifolia (Cristm.) Swingle [Lime] Stem from Bacteria Associated with Dental Caries


Background: The use of chewing stick as Tooth Cleanser by Arabs and now by most Muslims all around the globe has long been established. Stems of different trees have been used in this process. Stems of Citrus sinensis (Orange) and Citrus aurantifolia (Lime) are used in Nigeria in Cleansing Teeth. Few attempts were made to screen the Antimicrobial activity of the stems of the trees on Microorganisms isolated from Teeth. Aim of the Study: The aim was to determine the phytoconstituent and the Antimicrobial activity of Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantifolia on organism’s isolated from human Teeth. Materials and Methods: Phytoconstituents of the aqueous and ethanolic Extract of the stems of Lime and Orange tree were determined using standard methods. The Antimicrobial activity of the Extract against some Microorganisms isolated from Teeth was determined using agar well diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using standard method. Results: Phytochemical screening of stems of the two Plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, anthraquinones and carbohydrates. Highest zone of Inhibition of 7 mm and 10 mm was recorded on the ethanolic Extracts of orange and lime tree stems on Staphylococcus aureus respectively. No activity was recorded on both the aqueous and ethanolic Extracts of the trees on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MIC and MBC of 59 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml for the ethanolic Extracts of lime tree stem on S. aureus and Proteus mirabilis were recorded. For the orange tree, MIC and MBC of 25 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml were recorded for the ethanolic Extracts were recorded on S. aureus. Conclusion: Aqueous and ethanolic Extracts of Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantifolia were shown to be active against some of the Microorganisms isolated from human Teeth.


Antimicrobial effect of essential oil of Citrus reticulata on Fusobacterium nucleatum associated with Periodontal Disease


Chlorhexidine as a treatment of Periodontal Disease has achieved bactericidal Effects over periodontoPathogens and Oral Biofilm. Its use generates adverse Effects; therefore Natural alternatives are presented with a similar Antimicrobial effect. Essential oils have proved effective in controlling Dental Plaque without the adverse Effects of chlorhexidine. The aim of this study was to determine the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect of essential oil of tangerine against Fusobacterium nucleatum. The Extraction of the essential oil was performed by expression of tangerine peels (Arrayana and Oneco varieties). Concentrations at 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of the essential oil diluted in 0,02% Tween were evaluated. The bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect was determined by Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion. As a positive control 0,2% chlorhexidine and water as negative control were used. Inhibition zone (mm) was measured and presence or absence of bacterial growth was determined from colony forming units. To compare proportions of bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity, Fisher and T student test (95% CI p = 0,05) were performed. The 100% concentration zone of Inhibition showed a similar behavior as chlorhexidine (p <0,05). 100% and 80% concentrations were bactericides, 60%, 40% and 20% showed bacteriostatic behavior. No significant differences between the proportions of Inhibition of the two varieties of tangerine (p> 0,05). The use of essential oils of tangerine could be a complementary alternative to treatment of Periodontal Disease.



Cocoa pod husks


The Effect of Cocoa Pod Husk and Green Tea Extract on SMAD3 and FGF2 Expressions in Exposed Dental Pulp.


Direct Pulp capping employing calcium hydroxide has been used to maintain the Pulp’s vitality and Health and encourage the Pulp cells to establish reparative Dentin. It has been recommended to use calcium hydroxide as a material of direct Pulp capping due to its beneficial properties. However, calcium hydroxide also has several weaknesses. Cocoa pod husks and green tea contain high polyphenols which are useful for their antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. The Extracts of cocoa pod husk and green tea combined with calcium hydroxide are expected to increase the effectiveness of calcium hydroxide as a Pulp capping material. Objectives to prove the Extracts of cocoa pod husk and green tea’s Effects on the SMAD3 and FGF2 expressions in mice with perforated Dental Pulps. A total of 54 rats were used and divided into three groups: given calcium hydroxide treatment with distilled water, calcium hydroxide with the Extract of cocoa pod husk, and calcium hydroxide with the Extract of green tea. Then, cavities were then restored. The experimental animals from each treatment group were killed on days 3, 7, and 14 to observe their SMAD3 and FGF2 expressions. Data analysis with the Tukey HSD test for SMAD3 and FGF2 expressions on the two test groups suggested no significant difference. The Extracts of cocoa pod husk and green tea have the same ability to increase the SMAD3 and FGF2 expression in exposed Dental Pulp.


Comparison of the Effect of Calcium Hydroxide Combination with Cocoa Pod Husk Extract and Green Tea Extract on Fibroblast and Alp Activation


To analyze the effect of the combination of calcium hydroxide with cocoa pod husk Extract and
calcium hydroxide with a combination of green tea Extract on fibroblast and Alkaline Phospatase
(ALP) activation in mice perforation Dental Pulp and Immunology.
Sixty upper molars in Wistar rats were perforated mechanically and applied the combination
material of Pulp capping then divided into five groups. The first group was treated with calcium
hydroxide and aqudes, the second group was treated with cocoa pod husk Extract, the third group
was treated with green tea extrac, the Fourth group was treated with calcium hydroxide and cocoa
pod husk Extract, the fifth group was treated with calcium hydroxide and green tea Extract, then the
Cavity was restored. Rats from each group were killed after being treated according to a
predetermined time by peritoneal injection to see the number of fibroblast cells and ALP activation.
The average value of the number of fibroblasts in group I was lower compared to the other test
groups. There were statistically significant differences between groups. between groups I with
groups IV and V on day 7 and day 28 with p < 0.05. In ALP activation, the average value of ALP
activation in group I was lower compared to the other test groups and there were statistically
significant differences between groups group 1 and 4 other groups on day 7 and day 28. The
expression of ALP in the wistar (rattus norvegicus) rat Pulp after administration of calcium hydroxide
mixed with green tea Extract was higher than administration of calcium hydroxide mixed with cocoa
pod Extract.
The use of combination calcium hydroxide with green tea Extract has been proven to activate
more ALP than the combination of calcium hydroxide with cocoa pod husk Extract.


Effect of Calcium Hydroxide Combinations with Green Tea Extract and Cocoa Pod Husk Extract on p38 MAPK and Reparative Dentine


Aim and objective: The aim of this research is to analyze the effect of calcium hydroxide combinations with green tea Extract and the combination
of calcium hydroxide with cocoa pod husk Extract on the activation of p38 MAPK and wide area of reparative Dentin in mice Dental.
Materials and methods: This study used 36 rats that were randomly divided into three treatment groups: positive control group was applied
calcium hydroxide and aquades (group I), the test group was applied calcium hydroxide combined with cocoa pod husk Extract (group II), and
the next test group was applied using calcium hydroxide combined with green tea Extract (group III); all the cavities were restored with RMGIC.
On day 7 and 28, experimental animals from each treatment group were killed by peritoneal injection to see the activation of p38 MAPK, while
reparative Dentin was only seen on day 28.
Results: The result of data analysis using Multiple Comparison Tukey HSD test showed significant difference between the positive control
group and the test groups for the average p38 MAPK activation value on day 7 and 28. But there was no significant difference between two test
groups. The same thing was obtained in the calculation of the average area of reparative Dentin, where group I had the lowest value compared
to groups II and III on day 28 with a significant difference. There was no significant difference between groups II and III.
Conclusion: The use of combination calcium hydroxide with green tea Extract and combination calcium hydroxide with cocoa pod husk Extract
have significant effect on p38 MAPK activation and wide area of reparative Dentin in mice Dental.
Clinical significance: The use of combination calcium hydroxide with green tea Extract and combination calcium hydroxide with cocoa pod
husk Extract have been proven to activate more p38 and form a wider reparative Dentin.
Keywords: Calcium hydroxide, Cocoa pod husk Extract, Green tea Extract, p38 MAPK, Pulp capping direct, Reparative Dentin.


 


Coptidis Rhizoma Extract


Coptidis Rhizoma Inhibits growth and proteases of Oral Bacteria


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of Coptidis Rhizoma (CR), a traditional medicinal Plant, on Oral Bacteria.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: CR Extract was prepared by boiling CR in water for 2 h. Alkaloids contained in CR Extract were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). antibacterial activity of CR Extract was estimated from the lowest concentration that did not permit bacterial growth (minimum Inhibitory concentration, MIC) and the concentrations that Inhibited 50% of bacterial proteolytic activity (IC50). RESULTS: CR Extract Inhibited the growth of Actinomyces naeslundii, Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans at MIC of 0.031-0.25 mg ml-1, whereas it had less Inhibitory effect (MIC: 0.5-2 mg ml-1) on the growth of Streptococcus and Lactobacillus. The major active component of CR Extract was berberine (Ber), an alkaloid, and its Inhibiting specificity to bacterial growth was similar to that of CR Extract. CR Extract and Ber were bacteriostatic at the MICs against most of the Bacteria, and bacteriocidal at the concentrations higher than the MICs. Ber Inhibited the activities of collagenase from P. Gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

CONCLUSION: CR Extract and Ber had an Inhibitory effect on periodontopathogenic Bacteria. These results suggest the possibility of their clinical application for the treatment of Periodontal Diseases.


Screening of aqueous Extracts of medicinal herbs for Antimicrobial activity against Oral Bacteria


Background

Dental Caries is considered to be a Preventable Disease, and various Antimicrobial agents have been developed for the Prevention of Dental Diseases; however, many Bacteria show resistance to existing agents. In this study, 14 medicinal herbs were evaluated for Antimicrobial activity against five common Oral Bacteria as a screen for Potential candidates for the development of Natural antibiotics.
Methods

Aqueous Extracts of medicinal herbs were tested for activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces viscosus, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus Mutans, and Streptococcus sanguis grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth. A broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). A disk diffusion assay was performed by inoculating bacterial cultures on BHI agar plates with paper disks soaked in each of the medicinal herb Extracts. Inhibition of the synthesis of water-insoluble glucans by S. Mutans was also investigated.
Results

The aqueous Extracts of many of the 14 medicinal herbs demonstrated Antimicrobial activity against the five types of pathogenic Oral Bacteria. The Extracts of Sappan Lignum, Coptidis Rhizoma, and PsOraleae Semen effectively Inhibited the growth of Oral Bacteria and showed distinct bactericidal activity. The Extracts of Notoginseng Radix, Perillae Herba, and PsOraleae Semen decreased the synthesis of water-insoluble glucans by the S. Mutans enzyme glucosyltransferase (GTase). The present study is the first to confirm the Antimicrobial activity of the Extract of Sappan Lignum against all five species of Oral Bacteria strains.
Conclusion

These results suggest that certain herbal medicines with proven Antimicrobial Effects, such as Sappan Lignum and PsOraleae Semen, may be useful for the treatment of Dental Diseases.


Optimization of antibacterial Activity by Gold-Thread (Coptidis Rhizoma Franch) Against Streptococcus Mutans Using Evolutionary Operation-Factorial Design Technique


This study was conducted to find the optimum Extraction condition of Gold-Thread for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus Mutans using The evolutionary operation-factorial design technique. Higher antibacterial activity was achieved in a higher Extraction temperature () and in a longer Extraction time (). antibacterial activity was not affected by differentiation of the ethanol concentration in the Extraction solvent (). The maximum antibacterial activity of clove against S. Mutans determined by the EVOP-factorial technique was obtained at Extraction temperature, 26 h Extraction time, and 50% ethanol concentration. The population of S. Mutans decreased from 6.110 logCFU/ml in the initial set to 4.125 logCFU/ml in the third set.


Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Dental Caries


Aim: This article brings an insight of known medicinal
Plants helpful in treatment of Dental Caries and thus a novel
approach towards Preventive Oral care.
Summary: Dental Caries, one of the globally affecting
Diseases of the Oral Cavity is still prevalent in today’s era
despite knowledge of most advan ced sciences and
technologies in Dental practice. There has been constant
effort to focus on interception and correction of this
Disease entity but today our horizon has broadened the
approach and goal remains to Prevent the Disease process
rather than to correct it. Medicinal Plants have been
documented for Prevention and cure of many systemic
Diseases since ancient times. With advancements in science
and scientific procedures it is now known that Plants have
Potential curative action for Oral Diseases such as Dental
Caries. The usage of these herbal Extracts in clinical practice
can miraculously benefit the overall Health of the patient.
Conclusion: With complete understanding of the Dental
Caries our approach should be based on Prevention of
Disease process. One way to attain it is “going herba

 


Cortex phellodendri (huang bai)


Antimicrobial activity of Chinese medicine herbs against common Bacteria in Oral Biofilm. A pilot study


Twenty traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) were evaluated for their Antimicrobial activity against four common Oral Bacteria. TCMs were tested for sensitivity against Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus Mutans and Porphyromonas Gingivalis. Aliquots of suspension of each bacterial species were inoculated onto a horse blood agar plate with TCMs soaked separately on 6 mm paper disks. The plates were incubated for 48 h anaerobically and the mean diameters of growth Inhibition of three different areas obtained. 0.2% (w/v) chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. Broth microdilution assay was used to determine minimum Inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Fructus armeniaca mume was effective against all four Bacteria. Thirteen TCMs demonstrated Antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas Gingivalis, including Cortex magnoliae officinalis, Cortex phellodendri, Flos caryophylli, Flos lonicerae japonicae, Fructus armeniaca mume, Fructus forsythiae suspensae, Herba cum radice violae yedoensitis, Herba menthae haplocalycis, Pericarpium granati, Radix et rhizoma rhei, Radix gentianae, Ramulus cinnamomi cassia and Rhizoma cimicifugae. Cortex phellodendri showed Antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus Mutans, while Radix et rhizoma rhei was effective against Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis. Fructus armeniaca mume had Inhibitory Effects against Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus Mutans and Porphyromonas Gingivalis in vitro.


antibacterial Activity of Phellodendri Cortex on Dental Caries Bacteria Streptococcus sanguis


To develop the Natural antibacterial agents which don’t have any toxicity against man, collected several species of medicinal Plants were tested for their antibacterial activity from Dental Caries Bacteria Streptococcus sanguis. The result of using paper disc method and the result of viable cell counting method, Phellodendri Cortex was selected as antibacterial agent. The high antibacterial activity was acquired at high Extraction temperature and long Extraction temperature. The antibacterial of Phellodendri Cortex was not effected by the concentration of ethanol.


Potent anti-microbial activity of traditional Chinese medicine herbs against Candida species


Anti-candidial activities of eight traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) herbs were evaluated against six different Candida species. TCM preparations were screened for antifungal activity using a standard agar diffusion assay. Following identification of Potential candidate herbs, their minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using the standardised NCCLS M-27A broth microdilution assay. Among TCM herbs, Rhizoma Coptidis had Potent antifungal activity against Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis, but not against Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida parapsolosis. The MIC values of the Rhizoma Coptidis against C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. tropicalis were 50, 50 and 100 μg ml−1 respectively. We report here, for the first time, the Potent antifungal activity of Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex phellodendri Chinesis on three different non-albicans Candida species, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. tropicalis and hence their possible use as therapeutic agents.


 


Cranberry


Potential Oral Health benefits of cranberry


In the past decade, cranberry Extracts have been attracting ever-growing attention by Dental researchers. The Potential benefits of cranberry components in reducing Oral Diseases, including Dental Caries and Periodontitis, are discussed in this review. A non-dialysable cranberry fraction enriched in high molecular weight polyphenols has very promising properties with respect to cariogenic and periodontopathogenic Bacteria, as well as to the host inflammatory response and enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix. Cranberry components are Potential anti-Caries agents since they Inhibit acid Production, attachment, and Biofilm formation by Streptococcus Mutans. Glucan-binding proteins, extracellular enzymes, carbohydrate Production, and bacterial hydrophobicity, are all affected by cranberry components. Regarding Periodontal Diseases, the same cranberry fraction Inhibits host inflammatory responses, Production, and activity of enzymes that cause the destruction of the extracellular matrix, Biofilm formation, and adherence of Porphyromonas Gingivalis, and proteolytic activities and coaggregation of periodontoPathogens. The above-listed Effects suggest that cranberry components, especially those with high molecular weight, could serve as bioactive molecules for the Prevention and/or treatment of Oral Diseases.


Potential Oral Health Benefits of Cranberry


In the past decade, cranberry Extracts have been attracting ever-growing attention by Dental researchers. The Potential benefits of cranberry components in reducing Oral Diseases, including Dental Caries and Periodontitis, are discussed in this review. A non-dialysable cranberry fraction enriched in high molecular weight polyphenols has very promising properties with respect to cariogenic and periodontopathogenic Bacteria, as well as to the host inflammatory response and enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix. Cranberry components are Potential anti-Caries agents since they Inhibit acid Production, attachment, and Biofilm formation by Streptococcus Mutans. Glucan-binding proteins, extracellular enzymes, carbohydrate Production, and bacterial hydrophobicity, are all affected by cranberry components. Regarding Periodontal Diseases, the same cranberry fraction Inhibits host inflammatory responses, Production, and activity of enzymes that cause the destruction of the extracellular matrix, Biofilm formation, and adherence of Porphyromonas Gingivalis, and proteolytic activities and coaggregation of periodontoPathogens. The above-listed Effects suggest that cranberry components, especially those with high molecular weight, could serve as bioactive molecules for the Prevention and/or treatment of Oral Diseases.


Comparative evaluation of grape seed and cranberry Extracts in preventing Enamel erosion: An optical emission spectrometric analysis


Introduction:

Dental erosion is defined as the loss of Tooth structure due to chemical process that does not involve Bacteria. The management of such a condition calls for a comprehensive approach to identifying the cause and treating it.

Aim:

The aim of this study is to comparatively evaluate the role of grape seed Extract (GSE) and cranberry Extract (CE) in preventing Dental erosion using optical emission spectrometry.

Materials and Methods:

Prepared Enamel specimens were subjected to the erosive challenge using HCl for 10 s, followed by immersion in experimental Natural groups and control fluoride group for 30 s and artificial saliva for 60 min. This cycle was repeated three times. The amounts of calcium and phosphorous present in the acid solution after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd erosive challenges were determined for each group using induced coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

Results:

The cumulative calcium and phosphorous release after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd erosive challenges were found to be the least in SnF2 group, followed by GSE group and then in CE group.

Conclusion:

The protective of GSE and CE was inferior to the gold standard control group of stannous fluoride role, against Enamel erosion. GSE showed better remineralizing effect; however, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.


Inhibitory Effects of cranberry juice on attachment of Oral streptococci and Biofilm formation


Cranberry juice is known to Inhibit bacterial adhesion. We examined the Inhibitory effect of cranberry juice on the adhesion of Oral streptococci strains labeled with [3H]-thymidine to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (s-HA). When the bacterial cells were momentarily exposed to cranberry juice, their adherence to s-HA decreased significantly compared with the control (P < 0.01). Their hydrophobicity also decreased dependently with the concentration of cranberry juice. We also evaluated the Inhibitory effect of cranberry juice on Biofilm formation. By using a microplate system, we found that the high molecular mass constituents of cranberry juice Inhibited the Biofilm formation of the tested streptococci. The Inhibitory activity was related to the reduction of the hydrophobicity. The present findings suggest that cranberry juice component (s) can Inhibit colonization by Oral streptococci to the Tooth surface and can thus slow development of Dental Plaque.


Inhibitory Effect of Cranberry Polyphenol on Cariogenic Bacteria


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cranberry polyphenol fraction on mutans streptococci. Hydrophobicity is an important factor in the adherence of Bacteria to the Tooth surface. We found that cranberry polyphenol fraction significantly decreased the hydrophobicity of Streptococcus sobrinus 6715, Streptococcus Mutans MT8148R and JC2 in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Biofilm formation by S. sobrinus 6715 and S. Mutans MT8148R was Inhibited by 100 μg/ml cranberry polyphenol fraction (p<0.01). When dosage was increased to 500 μg/ml, Biofilm formation by S. Mutans JC2 was significantly Inhibited (p<0.05). Addition of 500 μg/ml cranberry polyphenol fraction to medium Inhibited growth of S. Mutans MT8148R compared with the control (p<0.05).


Effect of high-molecular-weight component of Cranberry on Plaque and salivary Streptococcus Mutans counts in children: An in vivo study


Background: Previous investigations showed that a high-molecular-weight, nondialyzable material (NDM) from cranberries Inhibits the adhesion of a number of bacterial species and Prevents the coaggregation of many Oral bacterial pairs. Aim: In the present study, the effect of Mouthrinse containing high-molecular-weight component of cranberry was evaluated on colonization of Streptococcus Mutans in children and compared it with a control Mouthrinse without high-molecular-weight component on Streptococcus Mutans counts. Materials and Methods: A high-molecular-weight NDM was isolated from cranberry juice concentrate after the dialysis of the cranberry concentrate; followed by lyophilization. A Mouthwash was prepared especially for the study having NDM in the concentration of 3 mg/ml. Following 4 weeks of daily usage of cranberry-containing Mouthwash by the children of an experimental group (n = 20), the Streptococcus Mutans counts in Plaque and saliva were compared with that in control group using placebo Mouthwash (n = 20) with the help of Dentocult SM strips. Results: There was a highlysignificant reduction in Streptococcus Mutans counts in saliva and Plaque of children using Mouthwash containing cranberry NDM (P < 0.05) compared to control. Conclusion: The data suggest that the high-molecular-weight cranberry Extract in Mouthwash has a significant Potential in reducing the Streptococcus counts in the Oral environment.


Oral_<span style=”>Oral Health Benefits of Cranberry: A Review


Cranberry has a unique combination of phytochemicals which are used for treatment of various systemic Diseases including Oral Diseases like Caries,Periodontitis and Oral cancer. Many in vitro studies have outlined the Potential Health benefits of cranberry but in vivo studies are still inconclusive. Cranberry Inhibit acid Production, attachment and Biofilm formation by Streptococcus Mutans thereby being an effective antiCaries agent. It also Inhibits host inflammatory response and adherance of Periodontal Pathogens on Tooth surfaces. Proanthocyanidins in cranberries demonstrate significant cancer Prevention. The review aims to well into the Potential benefits of cranberry in improving Oral Health as well as a peep into the still unexplored facets of Natural medicaments in Oral Disease Prevention.


Influence of Cranberry Proanthocyanidins on Formation of Biofilms by Streptococcus Mutans on Saliva-Coated Apatitic Surface and on Dental Caries Development in vivo


Cranberry crude Extracts, in various vehicles, have shown Inhibitory Effects on the formation of Oral Biofilms in vitro. The presence of proanthocyanidins (PAC) in cranberry Extracts has been linked to biological activities against specific virulence attributes of Streptococcus Mutans, e.g. the Inhibition of glucosyltransferase (Gtf) activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of a highly purified and chemically defined cranberry PAC fraction on S. Mutans Biofilm formation on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surface, and on Dental Caries development in Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, we examined the ability of specific PAC (ranging from low-molecular-weight monomers and dimers to high-molecular-weight oligomers/polymers) to Inhibit GtfB activity and glycolytic pH drop by S. Mutans cells, in an attempt to identify specific bioactive compounds. Topical applications (60-second exposure, twice daily) with PAC (1.5 mg/ml) during Biofilm formation resulted in less biomass and fewer insoluble polysaccharides than the Biofilms treated with vehicle control had (10% ethanol, v/v; p < 0.05). The incidence of smooth-surface Caries in rats was significantly reduced by PAC treatment (twice daily), and resulted in less severe carious lesions compared to the vehicle control group (p < 0.05); the animals treated with PAC also showed significantly less Caries severity on sulcal surfaces (p < 0.05). Furthermore, specific A-type PAC oligomers (dimers to dodecamers; 0.1 mg/ml) effectively diminished the synthesis of insoluble glucans by GtfB adsorbed on a saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surface, and also affected bacterial glycolysis. Our data show that cranberry PAC reduced the formation of Biofilms by S. Mutans in vitro and Dental Caries development in vivo, which may be attributed to the presence of specific bioactive A-type dimers and oligomers.



Cymbopogon flexuosus


Adjunctive use of essential oils following scaling and Root planing –a randomized clinical trial


Hitherto no study has been published on the effect of the adjunctive administration of essential oils following scaling and Root planing (SRP). This study describes the effect of a Mouthrinse consisting of essential oils (Cymbopogon flexuosus, Thymus zygis and Rosmarinus officinalis) following SRP by clinical and microbiological variables in patients with generalized moderate chronic Periodontitis.

Methods

Forty-six patients (aged 40–65 years) with moderate chronic Periodontitis were randomized in a double-blind study and rinsed their Oral Cavity following SRP with an essential oil Mouthrinse (n  =  23) or placebo (n  =  23) for 14 days. Probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL), bleeding on probing (BOP) and modified sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were recorded at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. SubGingival Plaque was taken for assessment of major Bacteria associated with Periodontitis.

Results

AL, PD, BOP and SBI were significantly improved in both groups after three (p   <   0.001) and 6 months (p   ≤   0.015). AL improved significantly better in the test than in the control group after 3 and 6 months (p < 0.001), so did PD after three months in the tendency (p  =  0.1). BOP improved better in the test group after 3 months (p  =  0.065). Numbers of Treponema denticola (p  =  0.044) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (p  =  0.029) decreased more in the test than in the control group after 3 months, those of Tannerella forsythia after 6 months (p  =  0.039). Prevotella micra (p  <  0.001, p  =  0.035) and Campylobacter rectus (p  =  0.002 , p  =  0.012) decreased significantly in both groups after 3 months.

Conclusions

The adjunctive use of a Mouthrinse containing essential oils following SRP has a positive effect on clinical variables and on bacterial levels in the subGingival Biofilm.


Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the North East India: A Biodiversity Hot Spot


The objective of this study was to investigate the Antimicrobial activities of essential oil obtained from medicinal and aromatic Plants found in Northeastern region of India namely, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Pogostemon cablin, Curcuma caesia, Cymbopogon winterianus, Clausena heptaphylla, Cinnamomum tamala, Psidium guajava, Ocimum sanctum, Cinnamomum camphora and one rhizome Kaempferia galanga. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The Plant species have good oil yielding capacity of more than 0.50%. The Antimicrobial activities were performed against five pathogenic Bacteria and four fungal strains. In disc diffusion method, the highest antibacterial activity for all the tested Bacteria was shown by Ocimum sanctum oil while Cinnamomum camphora and Psidium guajava oil showed no Inhibition except for E. coli and S. aureus respectively. Again the highest antifungal efficiency was shown by Cymbopogon flexuosus oil against the tested Microorganisms while the Inhibition was negligible for Psidium guajava and Cinnamomum camphora oil. MIC test was performed to confirm the results. Till date very scanty information is available on the Plants under study; therefore an effort was made to find out efficacy and effectiveness of different essential oils on different pathogenic strains thereby playing an important role as Disinfectant, preservatives in food industry or substitute for synthetic Antimicrobial drugs in pharmaceuticals.


The anti-Biofilm activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus ) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi ) essential oils against five strains of Staphylococcus aureus


Aims

To determine the sensitivity of five strains of Staphylococcus aureus to five essential oils (EOs) and to investigate the anti-Biofilm activity of lemongrass and grapefruit EOs.

Methods and Results

Antimicrobial susceptibility screening was carried out using the disk diffusion method. All of the strains tested were susceptible to lemongrass, grapefruit, bergamot and lime EOs with zones of Inhibition varying from 2·85 to 8·60 cm although they were resistant to lemon EO. Lemongrass EO Inhibited Biofilm formation at 0·125% (v/v) as measured by colorimetric assay and at 0·25% (v/v) no metabolic activity was observed as determined by 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction. Grapefruit EO did not show any anti-Biofilm activity. Following exposure to lemongrass EO extensive disruption to Staph. aureus Biofilms was shown under scanning electron microscopy.

Conclusions

In comparison to the other EOs tested, lemongrass exhibited the most effective Antimicrobial and anti-Biofilm activity.

Significance and Impact of the Study

The effect of lemongrass EO highlights its Potential against antibiotic resistant Staph. aureus in the Healthcare environment.


 


Deoxynojirimycin


Inhibition of Major Virulence Pathways of Streptococcus Mutans by Quercitrin and Deoxynojirimycin: A Synergistic Approach of Infection Control


Objectives

To evaluate the synergistic effect of Quercitrin and Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) together with their individual Inhibitory effect against virulence pathways of Streptococcus Mutans.
Methodology

MICs of both the compounds were determined by the microdilution method, followed by their in vitrosynergy using checkerboard and time kill assay. The nature of interaction was classified as synergistic on the basis of fractional Inhibitory concentration index (FICI) value of ≤0.5. Furthermore, the activity of Quercitrin and DNJ was evaluated individually and in combination against various cariogenic properties of S. Mutans UA159 such as acidogenesis, aciduracity, glucan Production, hydrophobicity, Biofilm and adherence. Moreover, expression of virulent genes in S. Mutans was analysed by quantitative RT- PCR (qRT-PCR) and Inhibition of F1F0-ATPase, lactate dehydrogenase and enolase was also evaluated. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate structural obliteration of Biofilm.
Results

The in vitro synergism between Quercitrin and DNJ was observed, with a FICI of 0.313. Their MIC values were found to be 64 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml respectively. The synergistic combination consistently showed best activity against all the virulence factors as compared to Quercitrin and DNJ individually. A reduction in glucan synthesis and Biofilm formation was observed at different phases of growth. The qRT-PCR revealed significant downregulation of various virulent genes. Electron micrographs depicted the obliteration of Biofilm as compared to control and the activity of cariogenic enzymes was also Inhibited.
Conclusions

The whole study reflects a prospective role of Quercitrin and DNJ in combination as a Potent Anticariogenic agent against S. Mutans.


Novel anti-adherence activity of mulberry leaves: Inhibition of Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm by 1-deoxynojirimycin isolated from Morus alba


Objectives

The present study focused on isolation, characterization and evaluation of purified compounds from Morus alba against Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm formation.

Methods

The effect of crude Extract from M. alba leaves was evaluated against Oral Pathogens, chiefly S. mutans. MICs were determined by the microdilution method. The compound was purified by employing silica gel chromatography and critically analysed with GC–MS, NMR and IR spectroscopy. The S. mutans traits of adherence and Biofilm formation were assessed at sub-MIC concentrations of the crude Extract and purified compound. Both water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide were estimated to determine the effect of the purified compound on the extracellular polysaccharide secretion of S. mutans. Its effect on Biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal microscopy.

Results

The purified compound of M. alba showed an 8-fold greater reduction of MIC against S. mutans than the crude Extract (MICs, 15.6 and 125 mg/L, respectively). The Extract strongly Inhibited Biofilm formation of S. mutans at its active accumulation and plateau phases. The purified compound led to a 22% greater reduction in alkali-soluble polysaccharide than in water-soluble polysaccharide. The purified compound was found to be 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ). Confocal microscopy revealed that DNJ distorts the Biofilm architecture of S. mutans.

Conclusions

The whole study reflects a prospective role of DNJ as a therapeutic agent by controlling the overgrowth and Biofilm formation of S. mutans.


Inhibition by acarbose, nojirimycin and 1-deoxynojirimycin of glucosyltransferase produced by Oral Streptococci


Acarbose is known to Inhibit glucoamylase, maltase and sucrase. Our aim was to test whether it would also Inhibit glucosyltransferase (GTF), to determine the type of Inhibition and to compare the Inhibitor potency of acarbose with that of nojirimycin and deoxynojirimycin, two other glucosidase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibition was measured either by chemical assay or by incorporation of radioactivity into Product. Acarbose effectively Inhibited the synthesis of polysaccharice by GTF from strains of Streptococcus Mutans and Streptococcus sanguis, but not by fructosyltransferase from Streptococcus salivarius. Acarbose and l-deoxynojirimycin were more Potent Inhibitors of GTF than maltose, nojirimycin or various amino sugars. The mechanism of action of these compounds is consistent with competitive Inhibition.



dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM)


Time-kill behavior against eight bacterial species and cytotoxicity of antibacterial monomers


Objectives

The objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) the antibacterial activity of two antibacterial monomers, dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) and dimethylammoniumethyl dimethacrylate (DMAEDM), against eight different species of Oral Pathogens for the first time; (2) the cytotoxicity of DMAEDM and DMADDM.

Methods

DMAEDM and DMADDM were synthesized by reacting a tertiary amine group with an organo-halide. Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against eight species of Bacteria were tested. Time-kill determinations were performed to examine the bactericidal kinetics. Cytotoxicity of monomers on human Gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was assessed using a methyl thiazolyltetrazolium assay and live/dead viability assay.

Results

DMADDM showed strong bactericidal activity against all Bacteria, with MIC of 1.2 to 9.8μg/mL. DMAEDM had MIC of 20 to 80mg/mL. Time-kill determinations indicated that DMADDM and DMAEDM had rapid killing Effects against eight species of Bacteria, and Eliminated all Bacteria in 30min at the concentration of 4-fold MBC. Median lethal concentration for DMADDM and DMAEDM was between 20 to 40μg/mL, which was 20-fold higher than 1 to 2μg/mL for BisGMA control.

Conclusions

DMAEDM and DMADDM were tested in time-kill assay against eight species of Oral Bacteria for the first time. Both were effective in BacteriaInhibition, but DMADDM had a higher potency than DMAEDM. Different killing efficacy was found against different Bacteria species. DMAEDM and DMADDM had much lower cytotoxicity than BisGMA. Therefore, DMADDM and DMAEDM are promising for use in bonding agents and other restorative/Preventive materials to combat a variety of Oral Pathogens.


antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm


antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus Mutans (S. Mutans) Biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. Mutans Biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) staining was used to analyze the Inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the Biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid Production during the development of S. Mutans Biofilms (p < 0.05). In earlier stages of Biofilm development, there were no significant differences of Inhibitory Effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-Biofilm Effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect Dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM Inhibited the growth, lactic acid Production and EPS metabolism of S. Mutans Biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its Dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the Potential to control Dental Biofilms and combat Tooth Decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of Dental adhesive systems and restoratives.


Short-Time antibacterial Effects of Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on Oral Multispecies Biofilm In Vitro


Quaternary ammonium compounds constitute a large group of antibacterial chemicals with a Potential for Inhibiting Dental Plaque. The aims of this study were to evaluate short-time antibacterial and regulating Effects of dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) on multispecies Biofilm viability, reformation, and bacterial composition in vitro. DMADDM, chlorhexidine (CHX), and sodium fluoride (NaF) were chosen in the present study. Streptococcus Mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Streptococcus gordonii were used to form multispecies Biofilm. Cytotoxicity assay was used to determine the optimal tested concentration. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and resazurin test of Biofilm were conducted to study the biomass changes and metabolic changes of controlled multispecies Biofilm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe Biofilm images. TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate the proportion change in multispecies Biofilm of different groups. Cytotoxicity assay showed that there existed a certain concentration application range for DMADDM, CHX, and NaF. MTT assay and resazurin test results showed that DMADDM and CHX groups decreased multispecies Biofilm growth and metabolic activity (p < 0.05), no matter after 1 min or 5 min direct contact killing or after 24 h regrowth. The proportion of S. Mutans decreased steadily in DMADDM and CHX groups after 1 min and 5 min direct contact killing and 24 h regrowth, compared to control groups. A novel DMADDM-containing solution was developed, achieving effective short-time antibacterial Effects and regulation ability of Biofilm formation.



Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia leaf Extract


Inhibitory activity of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia Extract against Streptococcus Mutans and its Biofilm


Ethnopharmacological relevance

The leaves of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA) are traditionally used for the treatment of fever, colds, Oral thrush, Toothaches and related problems. Streptococcus Mutans is implicated in many Oral infections. This study investigated the Inhibitory activity of DVA Extract against Streptococcus Mutans and its Biofilm.

Materials and Methods

Crude Extract of the leaves was prepared using methanol. The time-kill curve for Streptococcus Mutans at different concentrations of methanol Extract after 6 and 24 h was determined. Biofilms of Streptococcus Mutans were grown in the presence of subInhibitory concentration of Extract (0.78 mg/ml) for 30 h and the bacterial counts were obtained after 6, 24 and 30 h. The chemical profile of the crude Extract was obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results

The reduction of Streptococcus Mutans was concentration and exposure time dependent. The crude Extract killed 48% of S. Mutans at a lowest concentration of 0.1 mg/ml and 100% at 25 mg/ml after 6 h. Biofilm formation was reduced by 95, 97 and 99% after 6, 24 and 30 h of exposure to the subInhibitory concentration of crude Extract respectively. GC–MS analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols such as catechin or chromene groups, chalcones with trimethoxyphenyl group and tannin with 4-O-β-D-xylopyranoside. At high concentration the crude Extract was bactericidal to Streptococcus Mutans but subInhibitory concentration significantly reduced the planktonic cells and Biofilm formation.

Conclusions

These results suggest that this Plant has the Potential to be used to control S. Mutans and its Biofilm which are responsible for Oral infections.


Inhibitory Effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia on the Virulence Properties of the Oral Pathogens Streptococcus Mutans and Porphyromonas Gingivalis


Aim. This study investigated the effect of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA) on the virulence properties of cariogenic Streptococcus Mutans and Porphyromonas Gingivalis implicated in Periodontal Diseases. Methods. S. Mutans was cultured in tryptone broth containing a crude leaf Extract of DVA for 16 hours, and the pH was measured after 10, 12, 14, and 16 h. Biofilms of S. Mutans were grown on glass slides for 48 hours and exposed to Plant Extract for 30 minutes; the adherent cells were reincubated and the pH was measured at various time intervals. Minimum bactericidal concentration of the Extracts against the four Periodontal Pathogens was determined. The effect of the subInhibitory concentration of Plant Extract on the Production of proteinases by P. Gingivalis was also evaluated. Results. DVA had no effect on acid Production by S. Mutans Biofilms; however, it significantly Inhibited acid Production in planktonic cells. Periodontal Pathogens were completely Eliminated at low concentrations ranging from 0.09 to 0.02 mg/mL of crude Plant Extracts. At subInhibitory concentrations, DVA significantly reduced Arg-gingipain (24%) and Lys-gingipain (53%) Production by P. Gingivalis ( ). Conclusions. These results suggest that DVA has the Potential to be used to control Oral infections including Dental Caries and Periodontal Diseases.


Anti-acidogenic, anti-Biofilm and slow release properties of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia flavone stabilized polymeric nanoparticles


Objective

Dental Caries is caused by Plaque associated Oral Bacteria including a pioneer species Streptococcus Mutans. It has ability to form Biofilm and produce acids in the Oral Cavity. Many Oral hygiene Products containing Plant derived compounds have been investigated for their anti-S. Mutans activity. Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA), has been found to have this property. However, beneficial concentrations are difficult to maintain in the Oral Cavity due to continual saliva flow which can be overcome using nanotechnology. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-acidogenic, anti-Biofilm and slow release properties of DVA derived flavone stabilized polymeric nanoparticles.

Methods

Crude Extract prepared from DVA leaves was fractionated to produce subfractions and the beneficial subfraction (F5.1) was obtained. Polymeric nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG) were prepared, stabilized with the DVA subfraction (F5.1/NPs) and characterized. Anti-S. Mutans, anti-acidogenic and antibiofilm properties were determined. The subfraction release profile (substantivity) and cytotoxicity was determined. Results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon sum test (Mann-Whitney).

Results

F5.1/NPs showed anti-S. Mutans property (MIC 1.56 mg/ml). SubInhibitory concentrations of these nanoparticles significantly reduced the acid Production in S. Mutans (p < 0.01) and also reduced the Biofilm formation by 92%. The retention and slow release of the beneficial compound was detected up to 12 h, reaching 0.1 mg/ml concentration at pH 7.4 after 4 h and at pH 5.5 after 5 h. IC50 of F5.1/NPs was 62.5 µg/ml.

Conclusion

the DVA flavone containing nanoparticles showed Anticariogenic activity with improved substantivity. Therefore, they have Potential for use to control Dental Caries.


Phytochemical analysis of Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia and their beneficial Effects against Streptococcus Mutans


Introduction:
The link between Streptococcus Mutans and Dental Caries is well documented. The use of Natural
Plant Products in the treatment of Oral Diseases is gaining popularity. One Plant that has gained
recognition as a source of traditional medicine is Dodonaea viscosa var. angustifolia.
The aim of
this study was to analyse the p
hytochemical constituents of D. viscosa var. angustifolia (DVA)
and establish their beneficial effect
s against S. Mutans.
Materials and methods

Cultures of S. Mutans ATCC 10923 and SM1 were obtained from the Oral Microbiology
laboratory and the DVA
was collected from the Pypeklipberg, Mkhunyane Eco Reserve, South
Africa.
Dry DVA leaves were Extracted with methanol. The crude Extract was fractionated into
six fractions (F1
F6) using silica gel column chromatography and thin layer chromatography.
The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal C
oncentration
(MBC) of the crude Extract and six fractions were determined using microtitre plate dilution

technique. The effect of the crude Extract and fractions on Biofilm formation and acid Production

were i
nvestigated using standard techniques. The bioautography technique was also used to
identify fractions with bioactive compounds.
The most active fraction (F5) was further
fractionated
and purified into two subfractions, 5.1 and 5.2. Both subfractions were further
screened
to identify the most beneficial subfraction (5.1). Subfraction 5.1 was identified and
elucidated using GC
MS and NMR. The effect of the purified compound on Biofilm formation
and acid Production on
S. Mutans was repeated to establish reproducibility of the results.
Cytotoxic effect of the crude Extract and identified subfraction (5.1) was studied using human

v
embryonic kidney cells (HEK). The results were analyzed using
Wilcoxon ranksum test (Mann
Whitney).

Results

The MIC and MBC of the six fractions and crude Extract ranged from 0.39 to 12.5 mg/ml. On
preliminary screening of 6 fractions, F5 showed lowest MBC of 0.39 mg/ml and highest total
activity value of 2000. In addition, at 0.2 mg/ml, F5 reduced Biofilm formation by 93.3% and
reduced acid Production in S. Mutans. Purification of F5 produced subfraction 5.1 and 5.2.
Subfraction 5.1 showed higher Antimicrobial activity (MIC-0.05 mg/ml) compared to the crude
Extract (MIC-0.78 mg/ml) and subfraction 5.2 (MIC-0.78 mg/ml). At a concentration of 0.05
mg/ml, subfraction 5.1 exhibited an Inhibitory effect on Biofilm formation at both 6 hours (94%
reduction) and 24 hours (99% reduction) which was higher compared to the crude Extract (87%
reduction at 0.78 mg/ml after 6 hours). Subfraction 5.1 also exhibited a higher Inhibitory effect
on acid Production compared to the crude Extract. Subfraction 5.1 was identified as, 5,6,8-
Trihydroxy-7,4l-dimethoxyflavone. Cytotoxicity analysis of the crude Extract and subfraction 5.1
(5,6,8-Trihydroxy-7,4l-dimethoxyflavone) on HEK 293 cells showed IC50 values of 0.09 mg/ml
and 0.03 mg/ml respectively.

Conclusion

Phytochemical analysis of D. viscosa var. angustifolia produced an Anticariogenic constituent,
5,6,8-Trihydroxy-7,4l-dimethoxyflavone. The compound showed improved Antimicrobial and
Anticariogenic activity at lower concentrations than the crude Extract. At subInhibitory
concentrations, the compound significantly Inhibited Biofilm formation and acid Production by S.
mutans. Cytotoxicity analysis established the safe use of this newly isolated compound therefore
it has Potential to be used in the Oral Cavity to Prevent Dental Caries.



Egcg


Effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the biological properties of human Dental Pulp stem cells and inflammatory Pulp tissue


Objective

This study aimed to investigate the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the proliferation, mineralization, Inflammation and hypoxia responses of human Dental Pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) in vitro and its effect on inflammatory Pulp tissue in rats in vivo.
Design

The optimum concentration of EGCG was selected by creating a dose response curve. Expression of odontogenic/osteogenic-related genes and inflammatory cytokines after stimulation with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was detected by real-time PCR. Under hypoxic conditions, cell proliferation and expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected.In vivo, the maxillary first molars of SD rats were Pulpotomized and stimulated with 5 mg/mL LPS for 30 min. Normal saline and EGCG were used to flush the Pulp chamber. After 2 months, samples were removed for micro-CT scanning and HE staining.
Results

CCK-8 assay revealed that 10 μg/mL EGCG had no significant effect on the proliferation of hDPSCs. EGCG Inhibited expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Furthermore, EGCG rescued cell proliferation ability, increased SOD activity and reduced ROS expression under hypoxia.In vivo, reduced inflammatory cell accumulation was observed in the coronal Pulp in the EGCG group, while in the control group, diffuse inflammatory cells were observed in the radicular Pulp.
Conclusion

EGCG had no obvious Effects on calcified nodule formation but significantly Inhibited the inflammatory response of hDPSCs and Inhibited apoptosis of hDPSCs caused by hypoxia injury. In vivo, EGCG exerts Inhibitory Effects on Pulp tissue Inflammation.


Inhibitory Potential of EGCG on Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm: A new approach to Prevent Cariogenesis


Dental Caries is a common cause for Tooth loss and Streptococcus Mutans is identified as the etiologic pathogen. This study evaluates the Inhibitory Potential of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on S.mutans glucansucrase enzyme and its Biofilm. Glucansucrase binding and the Inhibitory Potential of EGCG was validated using AutoDock tool and enzyme Inhibitory assay. Biofilm Inhibitory Potential was also confirmed using Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) analysis in human Tooth samples. Molecular docking revealed that EGCG interacted with GLU 515 and TRP 517 amino acids and binds to glucansucrase. SEM analysis revealed Inhibition of S.mutans Biofilm by various concentrations of EGCG on surfaces of Tooth samples. Bioinformatics and biological assays confirmed that EGCG Potentially binds to the S. Mutans glucansucrase and Inhibits its enzymatic activity. Enzymatic Inhibition of glucansucrase attenuated Biofilm formation Potential of S. Mutans on Tooth surface. Thus, we conclude that EGCG Inhibitory Potential of S. Mutans Biofilm on the Tooth surface is a novel approach in Prevention of Dental Caries.


Inhibitory Potential of EGCG on Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm: A new approach to Prevent Cariogenesis


Dental Caries is a common cause for Tooth loss and Streptococcus Mutans is identified as the etiologic pathogen. This study evaluates the Inhibitory Potential of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on S.mutans glucansucrase enzyme and its Biofilm. Glucansucrase binding and the Inhibitory Potential of EGCG was validated using AutoDock tool and enzyme Inhibitory assay. Biofilm Inhibitory Potential was also confirmed using Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) analysis in human Tooth samples. Molecular docking revealed that EGCG interacted with GLU 515 and TRP 517 amino acids and binds to glucansucrase. SEM analysis revealed Inhibition of S.mutans Biofilm by various concentrations of EGCG on surfaces of Tooth samples. Bioinformatics and biological assays confirmed that EGCG Potentially binds to the S. Mutans glucansucrase and Inhibits its enzymatic activity. Enzymatic Inhibition of glucansucrase attenuated Biofilm formation Potential of S. Mutans on Tooth surface. Thus, we conclude that EGCG Inhibitory Potential of S. Mutans Biofilm on the Tooth surface is a novel approach in Prevention of Dental Caries.


Inhibitory Effects of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on exopolysaccharide Production by Streptococcus Mutans under microfluidic conditions


Plaque-forming Microorganisms produce insoluble exopolysaccharide (EPS), which allows the Microorganisms to attach strongly to the Tooth surface. Then, they start forming Biofilm, which is responsible for Plaque formation. The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is known to Inhibit Biofilm formation of Oral Bacteria. However, its Inhibitory Effects on Biofilm formation between the Teeth have not been well studied due to the lack of devices that mimic the space between the Teeth. In this study, we used a microfluidic device packed with glass beads (250–300 µm in diameter) to mimic the small cavities between the Teeth in order to test the Inhibitory Effects of EGCG on the Biofilm formation of Streptococcus Mutans, one of the Plaque-forming Microorganisms. EPS Production by S. Mutans was more effectively Inhibited by EGCG in the microfluidic device, compared to on agar plates, suggesting that it is more effective against Biofilm formation by S. Mutans cells under flow conditions than under non-flow conditions, such as conditions achieved by agar plates. These results suggest that our microfluidic device may be highly useful for studying the actual Effects of Antimicrobial compounds against Plaqueforming Microorganisms.


Anti-Biofilm activity of epigallocatechin gallate (Egcg) against Streptococcus Mutans Bacteria


Dental Caries is a Disease caused by Streptococcus Mutans. The use of chlorhexidine to Inhibit bacterial colonization has side Effects such as Tooth staining and can kill the normal flora when used long term. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a chemical compound in the form of polyphenols from green tea catechins which have Antimicrobial potency to Inhibit microorganism growth and Biofilm formation. Type Laboratory Experimental Research In-vitro. The group that will be studied are the negative control group in the form of S.mutans + 5% sucrose, the treatment group in the form of S. Mutans + 5% sucrose and EGCG concentration of 0.125mg/ml, 0.25mg/ml, 0.375mg/ml and a positive control group is S.mutans + 5% sucrose and 0.1% chlorhexidine. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to determine the normality of the data, Levene’s test for homogeneity of data, One Way ANOVA Post Hoc Tukey HSD Multiple Comparison to determine differences between treatments. Results: There were significant differences between the treatment groups and the negative control at test results Post Hoc Tukey HSD and the significant differences in the concentration of EGCG 0.375mg/ml with the positive control given chlorhexidine 0.1% (p <0.05). Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) influence on the activity of S. Mutans Biofilm formation and EGCG concentration of 0.375mg/ml are more effective as an antibiofilm of S. Mutans compared with chlorhexidine 0.1%.


Inhibitory Effects of Green Tea Polyphenols on Glucan Synthesis and Cellular Adherence of Cariogenic Streptococci


Inhibitory Effects of green tea polyphenols on glucan synthesis by glucosyltransferases of Streptococcus mutatis MT8148 and Streptococcus sohrinus 6715DP and on sucrose-dependent adherence of the bacterial cells were examined in vitro. The glucan synthesis by the bacterial glucosyltransf erase was strongly Inhibited by (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECg) and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), the main components of the tea polyphenols. It was also demonstrated that ECg and EGCg interfered with the sucrose-dependent adherence of those bacterial cells at much smaller concentrations than those which were needed to Inhibit the growth of the Bacteria.


Effects of Epigallocatechin Gallate, an antibacterial Cross-linking Agent, on Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells Cultured in Collagen Scaffolds


Introduction

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an antibacterial cross-linking agent, on the proliferation and differentiation of human Dental Pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured in hydrogel collagen scaffolds.
Methods

The odontogenic differentiation induced by EGCG was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and odontogenic-related gene expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The antibacterial effect of EGCG was investigated by a disc diffusion assay in comparison with glutaraldehyde. Proliferation was analyzed by cell number counting under both optical and confocal laser scanning microscopes. To assess the mechanical properties of collagen treated with EGCG, the setting time, surface roughness, and compressive strength were measured.
Results

EGCG itself did not up-regulate the odontogenic-related markers (P > .05) although ALP activity was slightly increased. The proliferation and differentiation of hDPCs cultured in collagen increased significantly in the presence of EGCG (P < .05). The antibacterial activity of EGCG was similar to that of glutaraldehyde. The setting time of collagen was significantly shortened when it was treated with EGCG (P < .05). The surface roughness and compressive strength of the cross-linked collagen were higher than those of collagen without EGCG (P < .05).
Conclusions

Our results showed that EGCG, the antibacterial cross-linking agent, Promoted the proliferation and differentiation of hDPCs cultured in collagen scaffolds. Furthermore, the enhanced mechanical properties of collagen scaffolds induced by EGCG may play important roles in cell behavior. Consequently, the application of EGCG to collagen scaffolds might be beneficial for regenerative endodontic therapy.


The green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin gallate precipitates salivary proteins including alpha-amylase: biochemical implications for Oral Health


Green tea is a popular drink throughout the world, and it contains various components, including the green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Tea interacts with saliva upon entering the Mouth, so the interaction between saliva and EGCG interested us, especially with respect to EGCG–protein binding. SDS-PAGE revealed that several salivary proteins were precipitated after adding EGCG to saliva. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) peptide mass fingerprinting indicated that the major proteins precipitated by EGCG were alpha-amylase, S100, and cystatins. Surface plasmon resonance revealed that EGCG bound to alpha-amylase at dissociation constant (Kd) = 2.74 × 10−6 M, suggesting that EGCG interacts with salivary proteins with a relatively strong affinity. In addition, EGCG Inhibited the activity of alpha-amylase by non-competitive Inhibition, indicating that EGCG is effective at Inhibiting the formation of fermentable carbohydrates involved in Caries formation. Interestingly, alpha-amylase reduced the Antimicrobial activity of EGCG against the Periodontal bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Therefore, we considered that EGCG–salivary protein interactions might have both protective and detrimental Effects with respect to Oral Health.


 


Eucalyptus camaldulensis


The effect of Mentha spicata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils on Dental Biofilm


Abstract: Objectives: To assess the Antimicrobial Effects of Mentha spicata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oils and chlorhexidine against Streptococcus Mutans and Streptococcus pyogenes, with a particular focus on in vitro and in vivo Biofilm formation.

Methods: The essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. In vitro and in vivo Antimicrobial and Biofilm preventing activities of the oils were studied.

Results: Fifteen and 21 compounds were identified in the essential oils of M. spicata and E. camaldulensis respectively. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the M. spicata and E. camaldulensis oils were found to be 4 and 2 mg ml−1, and those of chlorhexidine (2%) were 8 and 1 mg ml−1 for both S. Mutans and S. pyogenes respectively. Decimal reduction time of S. Mutans by M. spicata and E. camaldulensis oils at their MBC levels was 2.8 min, while that of cholrhexidine was 12.8 min. D-value of S. pyogenes exposed to the MBC levels of M. spicata and E. camaldulensis oils and of chlorhexidine were 4.3, 3.6 and 2.8 min respectively. antibacterial and in vivo Biofilm Preventive efficacies of all the concentrations of eucalyptus oil were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than that of M. spicata oil and chlorhexidine. In conclusion, essential oils are capable of affecting Biofilm formation.

Conclusion: The essential oils from E. camaldulensis and M. spicata significantly retard Biofilm formation that can contribute to the development of novel antiCaries treatments.


Antimicrobial Activity of Tanzanian Chewing Sticks Against Oral Pathogenic Microbes


Methanol Extracts from the bark and wood of ten Plants used as chewing sticks in Morogoro region, in Tanzania, were tested for their ability to Inhibit the growth of cariogenic Bacteria, Streptococcus Mutans , Actinomyces viscosus and a yeast Candida albicans . Screening for Antimicrobial activity was done by the agar-hole diffusion method, and minimum Inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the agar dilution method. Extracts from seven out of the ten Plants showed varying degrees of growth Inhibitory effect on the Microorganisms, with Acacia senegal var. senegal stem bark being the most active, followed by the stem bark of Eriosema psOraleoides . Their MICs ranged from 0.63 mg/ml to 5 mg/ml. Three Plants Ocimum suave , Opilia celtidifolia and Xerophyta suaveolens did not exhibit any Antimicrobial effect. Actinomyces viscosus was relatively more sensitive to the Extracts than S. Mutans and C. albicans . This study has also demonstrated that most bark Extracts possessed Antimicrobial activity, while many wood Extracts were inactive. It is, therefore, advisable to use, for Toothbrushing, unpeeled, rather than peeled chewing sticks, in order to exploit fully their Antimicrobial effect. However, additional studies are needed to determine their antiPlaque, antiCaries and antimycotic Effects.


Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. Plant Extracts and essential oils: A review


Eucalyptus has become one of the world’s most widely Planted genera and E. camaldulensis (The River Red Gum) is a Plantation species in many parts of the world. The Plant traditional medical application indicates great Antimicrobial properties, so E. camaldulensis essential oils and Plant Extracts have been widely examined. Essential oil of E. camaldulensis is active against many Gram positive (0.07–1.1%) and Gram negative Bacteria (0.01–3.2%). The antibacterial effect is confirmed for bark and leaf Extracts (conc. from 0.08 μg/mL to 200 mg/mL), with significant variations depending on Extraction procedure. Eucalyptus camaldulensis essential oil and Extracts are among the most active against Bacteria when compared with those from other species of genus Eucalyptus. The most fungal model organisms are sensitive to 0.125–1.0% of E. camaldulensis essential oil. The Extracts are active against C. albicans (0.2–200 mg/mL leaf Extracts and 0.5 mg/mL bark Extracts), and against various dermatophytes. Of particular importance is considerable the Extracts’ antiviral activity against animal and human viruses (0.1–50 μg/mL). Although the antiprotozoal activity of E. camaldulensis essential oil and Extracts is in the order of magnitude of concentration several hundred mg/mL, it is considerable when taking into account current therapy cost, toxicity, and protozoal growing resistance. Some studies show that essential oils’ and Extracts’ Antimicrobial activity can be further Potentiated in combinations with antibiotics (beta-lactams, fluorochinolones, aminoglycosides, polymyxins), antivirals (acyclovir), and Extracts of other Plants (e.g. Annona senegalensis; Psidium guajava). The present data confirm the river red Gum considerable Antimicrobial properties, which should be further examined with particular attention to the mechanisms of Antimicrobial activity.



eugenol from essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & LM Perry (clove) lea


antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of eugenol from essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (clove) leaf against Periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas Gingivalis


The antibacterial effect and mechanism of eugenol from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (clove) leaf essential oil (CLEO) against Oral anaerobe Porphyromonas Gingivalis were investigated. The results showed that eugenol, with content of 90.84% in CLEO, exhibited antibacterial activity against P. Gingivalis at a concentration of 31.25 μM. Cell shrink and lysis caused by eugenol were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The release of macromolecules and uptake of fluorescent dye indicated that the antibacterial activity was due to the ability of eugenol to permeabilize the cell membrane and destroy the integrity of plasmatic membrane irreversibly. In addition, eugenol Inhibited Biofilm formation and reduced preformed Biofilm of P. Gingivalis at different concentrations. The down-regulation of virulence factor genes related to Biofilm (fimA, hagA, hagB, rgpA, rgpB, kgp) explained that eugenol suppressed Biofilm formation at the initial stage. These findings suggest that eugenol and CLEO may be Potential additives in food and personal Healthcare Products as a prophylactic approach to Periodontitis.


The effect of eugenol on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus Mutans and Dental Caries development in rats


Eugenol has been widely used in medicine due to its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and analgesic properties. The present study was designed to investigate the Effects of eugenol on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus Mutans and Dental Caries development in rats. Eugenol demonstrated significant Inhibitory Effects against acid Production by S. Mutans. The synthesis of water-insoluble glucans by glucosyltransferases was reduced by eugenol. Eugenol also markedly suppressed the adherence of S. Mutans to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads. Furthermore, topical application of eugenol reduced the incidence and severity of carious lesions in rats. These results suggest that the Natural compound eugenol may be a useful therapeutic agent for Dental Caries.



Fructus armeniaca mume (wu mei)


Antimicrobial activity of Chinese medicine herbs against common Bacteria in Oral Biofilm. A pilot study


Twenty traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) were evaluated for their Antimicrobial activity against four common Oral Bacteria. TCMs were tested for sensitivity against Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus Mutans and Porphyromonas Gingivalis. Aliquots of suspension of each bacterial species were inoculated onto a horse blood agar plate with TCMs soaked separately on 6 mm paper disks. The plates were incubated for 48 h anaerobically and the mean diameters of growth Inhibition of three different areas obtained. 0.2% (w/v) chlorhexidine was used as a positive control. Broth microdilution assay was used to determine minimum Inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Fructus armeniaca mume was effective against all four Bacteria. Thirteen TCMs demonstrated Antimicrobial activity against Porphyromonas Gingivalis, including Cortex magnoliae officinalis, Cortex phellodendri, Flos caryophylli, Flos lonicerae japonicae, Fructus armeniaca mume, Fructus forsythiae suspensae, Herba cum radice violae yedoensitis, Herba menthae haplocalycis, Pericarpium granati, Radix et rhizoma rhei, Radix gentianae, Ramulus cinnamomi cassia and Rhizoma cimicifugae. Cortex phellodendri showed Antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus Mutans, while Radix et rhizoma rhei was effective against Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguis. Fructus armeniaca mume had Inhibitory Effects against Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus Mutans and Porphyromonas Gingivalis in vitro.


Antimicrobial Action of A Chinese Medicine Extract On E. Faecalis Biofilm.


This manuscript is to investigate the effectiveness of various irrigants and an aqueous Extract of Fructus mume in combating E. faecalis Biofilm. A mono-species Biofilm of E. faecalis was cultivated for 3 days on Thermanox? plates. Each Biofilm specimen was subjected to 10 seconds of immersion in different irrigants: Fructus mume solution, citric acid, sodium hypochlorite or sterile saline. The amount of viable Bacteria remaining on the substrate was quantified by LIVE/DEAD® BacLight? staining and confocal light scanning microscopy (CLSM). Then, the same Biofilm was retrieved and processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Images were obtained from 12 sites throughout the Biofilm, which were grouped into four regions of concern: Bottom where it would be immersed in the solution for most of the duration of the experiment; Centre where it was struck by the stream of irrigant; Middle and Upper where the effect was due to splashing or vapour of the irrigant. Results of the amount of viable Bacteria residual indicated that Fructus mume showed no significant activity, with an effect similar to physiological saline or citric acid, and significantly inferior to sodium hypochlorite. Sodium hypochlorite (0.5%) solution was superior to citric acid, Fructus mume and physiological saline as an Antimicrobial agent against E. faecalis Biofilm.



Galla chinensis


Effect of Enamel organic matrix on the Potential of Galla chinensis to Promote the remineralization of initial Enamel carious lesions in vitro


Galla chinensis, a Natural traditional Chinese medicine with main composition of tannic acid and gallic acid, is formed when the Chinese sumac aphid Baker (Melaphis chinensis bell) parasitizes the levels of Rhus chinensis Mill. Galla chinensis has shown the Potential to enhance the remineralization of initial Enamel carious lesion, but the mechanism is still unknown. This study was to investigate whether the Enamel organic matrix plays a significant role in the Potential of Galla chinensis to Promote the remineralization of initial Enamel Caries. Bovine sound Enamel blocks and non-organic Enamel blocks were demineralized and exposed to a 12 day pH cycling. During the pH cycling, 30 specimens with the Enamel organic matrix were randomly divided into three groups, and treated with 1 g L−1 NaF (group A), 4 g L−1 Galla chinensis Extract (group B1) or double deionized water (group C1). Twenty specimens without the Enamel organic matrix were randomly divided into two groups, and treated with 4 g L−1 Galla chinensis Extract (group B2) or double deionized water (group C2). The integrated mineral loss and lesion depth of all the specimens were analysed by transverse microradiography. The integrated mineral loss and lesion depth of group B1 were less than those of groups B2, C1 and C2, and there were no statistical differences among groups B2, C1 and C2. In conclusion, Galla chinensis can enhance the remineralization of initial Enamel carious lesion, and the Enamel organic matrix plays a significant role in this Potential of Galla chinensis.


Chemical composition of Galla chinensis Extract and the effect of its main component(s) on the Prevention of Enamel demineralization in vitro


To determine the chemical composition of Galla chinensis Extract (GCE) by several analysis techniques and to compare the efficacy of GCE and its main component(s) in Inhibition of Enamel demineralization, for the development of future antiCaries agents, main organic composition of GCE was qualitatively determined by liquid chromatography–time of flight–mass spectrometry (LC–TOF–MS) and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector (HPLC–DAD). Inorganic ions were tested by inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectroscopy and F was especially measured by ion chromatography. Then, bovine Enamel blocks were randomly divided into four treatment groups and were subjected to a pH-cycling regime for 12 times. Each cycle included 5-min applications with one of four treatments: 4 gL−1 GCE solution, 4 gL−1 gallic acid (GA) solution, 1 gL−1 NaF solution (positive control), deionized water (DDW, negative control), and then 60-min application in pH 5.0 acidic buffer and 5-min application in neutral buffer. Acidic buffers were retained for calcium analysis. The main organic composition of GCE were GA and its isomer, and, to a lesser extent, small molecule gallotannins. The content of GA in GCE was 71.3%±0.2% (w/w). Inorganic ions were present in various amounts, of which Ca was (136±2.82) µgg−1, and Zn was (6.8±0.1) µgg−1. No F was detected in GCE. In pH cycling, GA showed an effect similar to GCE in Inhibiting Enamel demineralization (P>0.05). GA was found to be the main effective, demineralization Inhibiting component of GCE and could be a promising agent for the development of antiCaries agents.


 


Gallic Acid


Trans-resveratrol, piceatannol and gallic acid: Potent polyphenols isolated from Mezoneuron benthamianum effective as antiCaries, antioxidant and cytotoxic agents


Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate Extract of the Root of Mezoneuron benthamianum, a shrub commonly used as chewing stick in the southwest of Nigeria, led to the isolation of three compounds characterised as trans-resveratrol, piceatannol and gallic acid by the use of spectroscopic techniques. The antiCaries activity of the polyphenols was evaluated against four Oral Bacteria Pathogens (Streptococcus Mutans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), isolated from clinical samples presented by patients having Dental Caries, while their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and brine shrimp (artemia salina nauplii) bioassay techniques. The results showed that the isolated compounds exhibited very strong antiCaries activity with minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 25 to 300 µg/ml, antioxidant activity with IC50 of 35.81, 30.35 and 11.73 µg/ml, when compared with ascorbic acid (IC50 = 38.20 µg/ml) and cytotoxic activity with LC50 of 7.15, 99.99 and 98.71 µg/ml for resveratrol, piceatannol and gallic acid respectively The isolated compounds demonstrated very strong antiCaries, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. This study further justifies the ethno-medicinal use of M. benthamianum as an effective tool in maintaining Oral hygiene.


Inhibitory effect of methyl gallate and gallic acid on Oral Bacteria


This study examined the ability of methyl gallate (MG) and gallic acid (GA), the main compounds of gallo-tannins in Galla Rhois, to Inhibit the proliferation of Oral bacterial and the in vitro formation of Streptococcus Mutans Biofilms. The Antimicrobial activities of these compounds were evaluated in vitro using the broth microdilution method and a beaker-wire test. Both MG and GA had Inhibitory Effects on the growth of cariogenic (MIC<8 mg/ml) and periodontopathic Bacteria (MIC=1 mg/ml). Moreover, these compounds significantly Inhibited the in vitro formation of S. Mutans Biofilms (MG, 1 mg/ml; GA, 4 mg/ml; P<0.05). MG was more effective in Inhibiting bacterial growth and the formation of S. Mutans Biofilm than GA. In conclusion, MG and GA can Inhibit the growth of Oral Pathogens and S. Mutans Biofilm formation, and may be used to Prevent the formation of Oral Biofilms.


Combating Biofilm by Targeting Its Formation and Dispersal Using Gallic Acid against Single and Multispecies Bacteria Causing Dental Plaque


Exploring biological agents to control Biofilm is a vital alternative in combating pathogenic Bacteria that cause Dental Plaque. This study was focused on Antimicrobial, Biofilm formation and Biofilm dispersal efficacy of Gallic acid (GA) against Bacteria, including Proteus spp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Salmonella spp., Streptococcus Mutans, and Staphylococcus aureus and multispecies Bacteria. Biofilm was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by crystal violet assay, florescence microscopy (bacterial biomass (µm2), surface coverage (%)) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). It was exhibited that GA (1–200 mg/L) can reduce bacterial growth. However, higher concentrations (100–200 mg/L) markedly reduced (86%) bacterial growth and Biofilm formation (85.5%), while GA did not exhibit any substantial dispersal Effects on pre-formed Biofilm. Further, GA (20–200 mg/L) exhibited 93.43% biomass reduction and 88.6% (p < 0.05) EPS (polysaccharide) reduction. Microscopic images were processed with BioImageL software. It was revealed that biomass surface coverage was reduced to 2% at 200 mg/L of GA and that 13,612 (µm2) biomass was present for control, while it was reduced to 894 (µm2) at 200 mg/L of GA. Thus, this data suggest that GA have Antimicrobial and Biofilm control Potential against single and multispecies Bacteria causing Dental Plaque.


Trans-resveratrol, piceatannol and gallic acid: Potent polyphenols isolated from Mezoneuron benthamianum effective as antiCaries, antioxidant and cytotoxic agents


Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate Extract of the Root of Mezoneuron benthamianum, a shrub commonly used as chewing stick in the southwest of Nigeria, led to the isolation of three compounds characterised as trans-resveratrol, piceatannol and gallic acid by the use of spectroscopic techniques. The antiCaries activity of the polyphenols was evaluated against four Oral Bacteria Pathogens (Streptococcus Mutans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), isolated from clinical samples presented by patients having Dental Caries, while their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and brine shrimp (artemia salina nauplii) bioassay techniques. The results showed that the isolated compounds exhibited very strong antiCaries activity with minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 25 to 300 µg/ml, antioxidant activity with IC50 of 35.81, 30.35 and 11.73 µg/ml, when compared with ascorbic acid (IC50 = 38.20 µg/ml) and cytotoxic activity with LC50 of 7.15, 99.99 and 98.71 µg/ml for resveratrol, piceatannol and gallic acid respectively The isolated compounds demonstrated very strong antiCaries, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. This study further justifies the ethno-medicinal use of M. benthamianum as an effective tool in maintaining Oral hygiene.


Changes in composition and Enamel demineralization Inhibition activities of gallic acid at different pH values


Background. Gallic acid (GA) has been shown to Inhibit demineralization and enhance remineralization of Enamel; however, GA solution is highly acidic. This study was to investigate the stability of GA solutions at various pH and to examine the resultant Effects on Enamel demineralization. Methods. The stability of GA in H2O or in phosphate buffer at pH 5.5, pH 7.0 and pH 10.0 was evaluated qualitatively by ultraviolet absorption spectra and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Then, bovine Enamel blocks were subjected to a pH-cycling regime of 12 cycles. Each cycle included 5 min applications with one of the following treatments: 1 g/L NaF (positive control), 4 g/L GA in H2O or buffered at pH 5.5, pH 7.0 and pH 10.0 and buffers without GA at the same pH (negative control), followed by a 60 min application with pH 5.0 acidic buffers and a 5 min application with neutral buffers. The acidic buffers were analysed for dissolved calcium. Results. GA was stable in pure water and acidic condition, but was unstable in neutral and alkaline conditions, in which ultraviolet spectra changed and HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that most of the GA was degraded. All the GA groups significantly Inhibited demineralization (p < 0.05) and there was no significant difference of the Inhibition efficacy among different GA groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions. GA could Inhibit Enamel demineralization and the Inhibition effect is not influenced by pH. GA could be a useful source as an anti-cariogenic agent for broad practical application.


In vitro Anticariogenic effect of gallic acid against Streptococcus Mutans


Involvement of Streptococcus Mutans in the pathogenesis of Dental Caries among human populations is well established. Here, we studied the effect of gallic acid, a Naturally occurring polyphenol on certain cariogenic activities of S. Mutans. Gallic acid Inhibited the glycosyltransferase activity, a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism by 27-36% in S. Mutans. Minimal Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gallic acid (136 μg/mL) Inhibited the growth of S.mutans by 50%. About 0.4 mM of the polyphenol reduced Biofilm formation by 40%, hydrophobicity 60% and acid Production 36% by the organism under in vitro growth conditions. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that in absence of gallic acid, the cells were present as clumps, however in the presence of gallic acid (68 µg/mL), they were well segregated due to the Inhibition of Biofilm formation. The present findings suggest that gallic acid has cariostatic activity against S. Mutans, which may have Potential application in Prevention of Dental Caries.


Inhibition of Gallic Acid on the Growth and Biofilm Formation of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus Mutans


New strategies for Biofilm Inhibition are becoming highly necessary because of the concerns to synthetic additives. As gallic acid (GA) is a hydrolysated Natural Product of tannin in Chinese gall, this research studied the Effects of GA on the growth and Biofilm formation of Bacteria (Escherichia coli [Gram-negative] and Streptococcus Mutans [Gram-positive]) under different conditions, such as nutrient levels, temperatures (25 and 37 °C) and incubation times (24 and 48 h). The minimum Antimicrobial concentration of GA against the two pathogenic organisms was determined as 8 mg/mL. GA significantly affected the growth curves of both test strains at 25 and 37 °C. The nutrient level, temperature, and treatment time influenced the Inhibition activity of GA on both growth and biofim formation of tested Pathogens. The Inhibition effect of GA on Biofilm could be due to other factors in addition to the antibacterial effect. Overall, GA was most effective against cultures incubated at 37 °C for 24 h and at 25 °C for 48 h in various concentrations of nutrients and in vegetable wash waters, which indicated the Potential of GA as emergent sources of Biofilm control Products.



Genipin


Herbal Medications in Endodontics and Its Application—A Review of Literature


Abstract: Herbal Products are gaining popularity in Dental and medical practice nowadays due to
their biocompatibility, higher Antimicrobial activity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Herbal medicine has experienced rapid growth in recent years due to its beneficial properties, ease
of availability, and lack of side Effects. As pathogenic Bacteria become more resistant to antibiotics
and chemotherapeutic agents, researchers are becoming more interested in alternative Products
and treatment choices for Oral Diseases. As a result, Natural phytochemicals separated from Plants
and utilized in traditional medicine are suitable substitutes for synthetic chemicals. The aim of this
review article is to list and understand several herbal alternatives that are currently accessible for
use as efficient endodontic medicaments. The herbal Products used in endodontics have several
advantages, including safety, ease of use, increased storability, low cost, and a lack of microbial
tolerance. However, preclinical and clinical testing and interactions with other materials and adverse
Effects are required for these herbal Products


Genipin, a Cross-linking Agent, Promotes Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells


Introduction

The aim of this study was to investigate the Effects of genipin, a Natural collagen cross-linking agent, on odontogenic differentiation of human Dental Pulp Dental Pulp cells (hDPCs) because the mechanical properties of collagen allow it to serve as a scaffold for engineering of PulpDentin complex. Furthermore, the role of extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) was investigated as a mediator of the differentiation.

Methods

The odontogenic differentiation was analyzed by alkaline phosphatase activity, real time-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and alizarin red S staining. The morphologic features of hDPCs cultured in genipin-treated collagen were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. For the assessment of mechanical properties of collagen treated with genipin, the surface roughness and compressive strength were measured.

Results

Alkaline phosphatase activity, the expression of odontogenic markers, and mineralized nodule formation increased in the genipin-treated group. Genipin also activated ERK, and treatment with ERK Inhibitor blocked the expression of the markers. The cells cultured in genipin-treated collagen spread across the substrate and attached in close proximity to one another. The proliferation and differentiation of hDPCs cultured in genipin-treated collagen were facilitated. The mechanical properties of collagen, such as surface roughness and compressive strength, were increased by treatment with genipin.

Conclusions

Our results show that genipin Promotes odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs via the ERK signaling pathway. Furthermore, the enhanced mechanical properties of the collagen scaffold induced by genipin may play important roles in cell fate. Consequently, the application of genipin might be a new strategy for DentinPulp complex Regeneration.


Preparation and evaluation of ketorolac tromethamine gel containing genipin for Periodontal Diseases


Ketorolac tromethamine gel (KT gel) and ketorolac tromethamine gel containing genipin (KTG gel) were prepared and their therapeutic Effects on Periodontitis were evaluated. The skin permeation rate of ketorolac from the KT gel and KTG gel was 5.75±0.53 and 5.82 ± 0.74 (ig/cm2/ h, respectively. The skin permeation rate of genipin from the KTG gel was 10.13 ± 1.47 [μl cm2/h. The tensile strength of the KTG gel was larger than the KT gel. After 4 weeks, the Periodontal pocket depth of the KTG gel group (3.22 ± 0.20 mm) significantly decreased compared with the non-treated group (4.50 ± 0.25 mm) and the KT group (3.84 ± 00.26 mm). The KTG gel did not induce separation of the stratum corneum and subcutaneous tissue, and the collagen layers of the corium were closer, more fibrous, and showed longer connections than in the other groups. The KTG gel appears to be effective against Gingivitis in the Periodontal pocket through its increased anti-inflammatory activity and the crosslinking of genipin with the biological tissue.


Development and characterization of a new chitosan-based scaffold associated with gelatin, microparticulate Dentin and genipin for endodontic Regeneration


Objective

An ideal scaffold for endodontic Regeneration should allow the predictableness of the new tissue organization and limit the negative impact of residual Bacteria. Therefore, composition and functionalization of the scaffold play an important role in tissue bioengineering. The objective of this study was to assess the morphological, physicochemical, biological and Antimicrobial properties of a new solid chitosan-based scaffold associated with gelatin, microparticulate Dentin and genipin.

Methods

Scaffolds based on chitosan (Ch); chitosan associated with gelatin and genipin (ChGG); and chitosan associated with gelatin, microparticulate Dentin and genipin (ChGDG) were prepared by using the freeze-drying method. The morphology of the scaffolds was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The physicochemical properties were assessed for biodegradation, swelling and total released proteins. The biological aspects of the scaffolds were assessed using human cells from the apical papilla (hCAPs). Cell morphology and adhesion to the scaffolds were evaluated by SEM, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation by MTT reduction-assay. Cell differentiation in scaffolds was assessed by using alizarin red assay. The Antimicrobial effect of the scaffolds was evaluated by using the bacterial culture method, and bacterial adhesion to the scaffolds was observed by SEM.

Results

All the scaffolds presented porous structures. The ChCDG had more protein release, adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of hCAPs, and bacteriostatic effect on Enterococcus faecalis than Ch and ChGG (p < 0.05).

Significance

The chitosan associated with gelatin, microparticulate Dentin and genipin has morphological, physicochemical, biological and antibacterial characteristics suitable for their Potential use as scaffold in regenerative endodontics.



Ginkgo bilobaL.leaf Extract


Protective Effects of ginkgo biloba Extract on ligature-induced Periodontitis in rats


Objective. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the systemic administration of Extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) would Prevent excessive tissue destruction in ligature-induced Periodontitis in a rat model. Materials and methods. Thirty-two male Wistar albino rats were used in the current study. The rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight rats each: (1) non-ligated treatment (NL) group, (2) ligature-only (LO) group, (3) ligature plus GB28 (28 mg/kg, daily for 11 days) group and (4) ligature plus GB56 (56 mg/kg, daily for 11 days) group. Results. Measurement of alveolar bone loss in the mandibular molar Tooth revealed significantly lower bone loss values in the LO group compared to groups NL, GB28 and GB56 (p < 0.05). Conclusion. The present results are the first data which suggests that host response in Periodontitis can be modified by EGb administration. EGb minimized progression of Periodontal Disease.


The ameliorative effect of ascorbic acid and Ginkgo biloba on learning and memory deficits associated with fluoride exposure


Abstract

Chronic exposure to fluoride causes Dental and skeletal fluorosis. Fluoride exposure is also detrimental to soft tissues and organs. The present study aimed at evaluation of the effect of Ginkgo biloba and ascorbic acid on learning and memory deficits caused by fluoride exposure. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=6). Group 1 control. Groups 2 to 5 received 100 ppm of sodium fluoride over 30 days. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were further treated for 15 days receiving respectively 1% Gum acacia solution, 100 mg/kg body weight ascorbic acid, and 100mg/kg body weight Ginkgo biloba Extract. After 45 days, all animals were subjected to behavioural tests. The results showed that fluoride affected learning and memory. Fluoride causes oxidative stress and neurodegeneration, thereby affecting learning and memory. Ascorbic acid and Ginkgo biloba were found to augment the reversal of learning and memory deficits caused by fluoride ingestion.



Glycyrrhiza glabra


Anticariogenic activity of some tropical medicinal Plants against Streptococcus Mutans


The methanol Extracts of five tropical Plants, Baeckea frutescens, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Kaempferia pandurata, Physalis angulata and Quercus infectoria, exhibited Potent antibacterial activity against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus Mutans. In particular, G. glabra, K. pandurata and P. angulata conferred fast killing bactericidal effect against S. Mutans in 2 min at 50 μg/ml of Extract concentration.


antibacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra against Oral Pathogens: an in vitro study


Objectives: Oral infections and Dental Caries are still considered as serious public Health problems and inflict a costly burden to Health care services around the world and especially in developing countries.

Materials and Methods: In the present study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra (G. glabra) against Oral Pathogens by diffusion methods and determined the minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) by both broth and Agar dilution methods and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) by broth dilution methods.

Results: In this study, G. glabra Extract showed good antibacterial activity against six Bacteria. No strain in this study showed resistance against this Extract.

Conclusion: G. glabrais suggested as an appropriate candidate to help us in order to control Dental Caries and endodontic infections.


Glycyrrhiza glabra: Its role in dentistry


Glycyrrhiza glabra has been used as medicine in Ayurveda and flavouring herb for more than 4000 years. It is reported to have antiviral, anticancer, anti-ulcer, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant,anti-malarial, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, immune-stimulant, antithrombotic, anticonvulsant, anti-allergenic and expectorant activities. The presence of alkaloids, tannins, essential oils and flavonoids Prevent the adherence of Bacteria to the Tooth surfaces, Inhibit glucan Production and have Inhibitory effect on amylases. This paper presents a review of role of Glycyrrhiza glabra in dentistry.


In Vitro Analysis of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) Root Extract Activity on Streptococcus Mutans in Comparison to Chlorhexidine and Fluoride Mouthwash


Aim: The present study was done to determine the activity of licorice Root Extract on Streptococcus Mutans (S. Mutans) in comparison to
chlorhexidine and fluoride Mouthwash.

Materials and methods:
In the current study, the different concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic licorice Root Extract were subjected to
microbiological assay and zone of Inhibition was determined against
S. Mutans by agar ditch method. Minimum Inhibitory concentration
(MIC) of aqueous and ethanolic solution was obtained by using broth dilution method and agar dilution method. Chlorhexidine and fluoride

Mouthwash were kept as a positive control in the present study. One-way ANOVA along with Tukey
post hoc test were used at 5% level of
significance to analyze data.

Results:
Mean zone of Inhibition of chlorhexidine Mouthwash, fluoride Mouthwash, aqueous and ethanolic licorice Root Extracts againstS. Mutans
at 24 hours were 23 mm, 14.2 mm, 15.8 mm and 22.4 mm, respectively. Minimum Inhibitory concentration of aqueous and ethanolic licorice

Root Extract on
S. Mutans was 20 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively by both broth dilution method and agar dilution method.
Conclusion:
The antibacterial effect produced by ethanolic licorice Root Extract on S. Mutans was comparable to chlorhexidine Mouthwash
while significantly higher in comparison with aqueous form and fluoride Mouthwash.

Clinical significance:
The interest in the Plants with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity has increased now days to treat various Dental
Diseases as consequences of current problems associated with the conventional agents. Licorice Root is easily available, economically feasible

and culturally acceptable and may possess minimal side Effects as compared to conventional means of chemicotherapeutic agents used for

reduction of
S. Mutans in Oral Cavity and hence can be recommended for Prevention of Dental Caries.


Licorice and its Potential beneficial Effects in common oro-Dental Diseases


Licorice, the name given to the Roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza species, has been used since ancient times as a traditional herbal remedy. Licorice contains several classes of secondary metabolites with which numerous human Health benefits have been associated. Recent research suggests that licorice and its bioactive ingredients such as glycyrrhizin, glabridin, licochalcone A, licoricidin, and licorisoflavan A possess Potential beneficial Effects in Oral Diseases. This paper reviews the Effects of licorice and licorice constituents on both the Oral microbial Pathogens and the host immune response involved in common ora-Dental Diseases (Dental Caries, Periodontitis, candidiasis, and recurrent aphthous ulcers). It also summarizes results of clinical trials that investigated the Potential beneficial Effects of licorice and its constituents for preventing/treating oro-Dental Diseases.


Glycyrrhiza glabra-an Ayurvedic Medicine in Dentistry


Dental Caries, Oral infections and other related endodontic problems pose a serious threat to Dental Health care. This has lead to the development of various Mouthwash made from chemicals to Prevent such infections and Caries. This is seen as a major threat in developing countries and the major cause for these infections being life style changes, lack of awareness and food habits. Since time immemorial Ayurvedic medicines have been used in the treatment of various ailments. Due to the rise in antibiotic resistance, Ayurvedic medicine has been developed recently and it’s usage has also showed great results. This article throws light on the antibacterial and Antimicrobial activity of the herb Glycyrrhiza glabra in dentistry.


Antiadherence and Antimicrobial property of herbal Extracts (Glycyrrhiza glabra and Terminalia chebula) on Streptococcus Mutans: An in vitro experimental study


Background:

Herbal agents are used for treating different forms of Diseases since decades. In the current study, the antiadhesive property of herbal Extracts has been evaluated using Glycyrrhiza glabra (GG) and Terminalia chebula (TC) herbal Extracts on Streptococcus Mutans.

Materials and Methods:

The Plant Extracts (GG and TC) were powdered in mechanical grinder. Ten gram of each Plant Extract in powder form was placed in porous bag or thimble. The Extract was placed in a round-bottom flask and was transferred into Clean preweighed universal tubes. The yield strength of the Extract was calculated. The antiadherence property of the herbal Extract was evaluated using glass surface adherence test.

Statistical Analysis:

The statistical analysis was done using one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Tukey’s test.

Results:

Both herbal Extracts have significant antiadhesive and Antimicrobial activity against S. Mutans, however, high antiadherence property was seen with TC than GG.

Conclusion:

Both the Plant Extracts exhibit Inhibitory activity against S. Mutans. However, TC had more clinically significant results than GG, but it was found statistically insignificant.


An in silico Analysis of Protein Targeted by Glycyrrhizin in Common Dental Pathogens


Glycyrrhizin is a phytocompound which is derived from Glycyrrhiza glabra. It is used in treating the upper respiratory tract Disease like cough, bronchitis, laryngitis, sore throat, etc. It has various medicinal uses in rheumatism, peptic ulcers, asthma, allergies, and Inflammation. Glycyrrhizin has been reported to possess antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, anti inflammatory properties. In view of the above facts, the present in silicostudy was designed to demonstrate the molecular mechanism underlying the Antimicrobial activity of glycyrrhizin against common Dental Pathogens such as Streptococcus Mutans, Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Enterococcus faecalisandTannerella forsythia.The STITCH tool was used to identify the drug-protein interaction. The functional class of the protein was deduced using VICMPred, followed by the identification of epitopes on the virulence factors using BepiPred. Further, the subcellular location of the virulence factors were also studied using PSORTb software. The computational analysis performed identified several virulence factors viz., short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family oxidoreductase of Treponema denticola and D-mannonate oxidoreductase of Tannerella forsythiawhich were found to interact with glycyrrhizin. Interestingly, phosphopyruvate hydratase was found to be the protein present in all the five genera was shown to interact with glycyrrhizin. Thus the present study reveals the target proteins on the Dental Pathogens which were shown to interact with glycyrrhizin. Furthermore,experimental validation of the resultsare warranted to provide substantial details on the anti-microbial activity of glycyrrhizin against common Dental Pathogens



Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch Extract


A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of a Mouthwash Containing Glycyrrhiza uralensis Extract for preventing Dental Caries


This study sought to confirm the effect of using a Mouthwash containing Glycyrrhiza uralensis Extract for Oral Health management by investigating changes in the pH of Dental Plaque and Bacteria that cause Dental Caries. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 60 subjects categorized in either the Glycyrrhiza uralensis Extract gargle group (n = 30) or the saline gargle group (n = 30). Scaling was conducted in order to ensure the homogeneity of the Oral environment, while gargling was performed once daily before the subjects went to bed for 5 days based on the group. Caries activity was assessed using the Cariview test, while detection of the Bacteria that cause Dental Caries was confirmed using microbiological analysis. All clinical measurements and evaluations were conducted by two trained Dental hygienists under the supervision of a dentist. Based on the analysis of Dental Caries activity and Dental Caries-causing Bacteria, the Glycyrrhiza uralensis Extract gargle group showed a clear decrease in Bacteria compared to the saline gargle group. Glycyrrhiza uralensis Extract demonstrated no risk of Tooth demineralization. It also showed excellent antibacterial activity through Inhibition and effective reduction of Bacteria that cause Dental Caries. Therefore, the Mouthwash containing Glycyrrhiza uralensis Extract is an effective Oral care Product suitable for use as an effective Dental Caries Prevention agent.


Antimicrobial Effects against Oral Pathogens and Cytotoxicity of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Extract


We aimed to evaluate the Antimicrobial Effects of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Extract on Streptococcus Mutans and Candida albicans and its biocompatibility for Dental applications. The Antimicrobial activity of the G. uralensis Extracts at concentrations of 50, 100, 150, and 200 µg/mL was assessed using agar disk diffusion tests, counting the total number of colony-forming units (CFUs), spectrophotometric growth Inhibitory assays, and microbial morphology observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM; Merin, Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany). We measured the polyphenol and flavonoid contents of G. uralensis Extracts using ultraviolet–visible spectrometry and the cytotoxicity of these Extracts using an MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. We identified that G. uralensis Extracts had significant Antimicrobial Effects against S. Mutans and C. albicans. The optical density of the experimental groups significantly decreased compared with that of the control group. SEM images revealed that the G. uralensis Extract affected the morphology and density of S. Mutans and C. albicans. The Extract concentration of flavonoids, but not polyphenols, increased with increasing concentrations of the G. uralensis Extract. Furthermore, cell viabilities were more than 70% for G. uralensis Extracts with concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/mL. Naturally derived G. uralensis is biocompatible and exhibits an excellent Antimicrobial effect against Oral Pathogens such as S. Mutans and C. albicans. Thus, G. uralensis Extracts can be used for the development of Oral Products that treat and Prevent Oral Diseases.


Inhibitory Effects of Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fisch Extract on Cariogenic Virulence Factors of Streptococcus Mutans


As one of the most ancient traditional Chinese medicines, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch shows definite curative impact on many Diseases. This study aims to evaluate the influence of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch Extract on cariogenic factors of S. Mutans. These data suggested that MIC of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch Extract against planktonic cells was 8 mg/mL.The Extract at sub-MIC levels had a repressive effect on acid Production of S. Mutans. Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch Extract Inhibited the initial adhesion stage of Biofilm formation. Although Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch Extract had no effect on mature Biofilm removal, it could partly penetrate through the Biofilm and kill the bacterial cells. These results indicate that Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch Extract has a suppressive impact on cariogenic factors of S. Mutans and it represents a promising anti-Caries agent.


Isoflavonoids and Coumarins from Glycyrrhiza uralensis: antibacterial Activity against Oral Pathogens and Conversion of Isoflavans into Isoflavan-Quinones during Purification


Phytochemical investigation of a supercritical fluid Extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis has led to the isolation of 20 known isoflavonoids and coumarins, and glycycarpan (7), a new pterocarpan. The presence of two isoflavan-quinones, licoriquinone A (8) and licoriquinone B (9), in a fraction subjected to gel filtration on Sephadex LH-20 is due to suspected metal-catalyzed oxidative degradation of licoricidin (1) and licorisoflavan A (2). The major compounds in the Extract, as well as 8, were evaluated for their ability to Inhibit the growth of several major Oral Pathogens. Compounds 1 and 2 showed the most Potent antibacterial activities, causing a marked growth Inhibition of the cariogenic species Streptococcus Mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus at 10 μg/mL and the periodontopathogenic species Porphyromonas Gingivalis (at 5 μg/mL) and Prevotella intermedia (at 5 μg/mL for 1 and 2.5 μg/mL for 2). Only 1 moderately Inhibited growth of Fusobacterium nucleatum at the highest concentration tested (10 μg/mL).



Glycyrrhizol A


Development and evaluation of a safe and effective sugar-free herbal lollipop that kills Cavity-causing Bacteria


Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) is caused by a specific group of cariogenic Bacteria, like Streptococcus Mutans,
which convert dietary sugars into acids that dissolve the mineral in Tooth structure. Killing cariogenic Bacteria
is an effective way to control or Prevent Tooth Decay. In a previous study, we discovered a novel compound
(Glycyrrhizol A), from the Extraction of licorice Roots, with strong Antimicrobial activity against cariogenic
Bacteria. In the current study, we developed a method to produce these specific herbal Extracts in large
quantities, and then used these Extracts to develop a sugar-free lollipop that effectively kills cariogenic Bacteria
like Streptococcus Mutans. Further studies showed that these sugar-free lollipops are safe and their Antimicrobial
activity is stable. Two pilot human studies indicate that a brief application of these lollipops (twice a day for ten
days) led to a marked reduction of cariogenic Bacteria in Oral Cavity among most human subjects tested. This
herbal lollipop could be a novel tool to Promote Oral Health through functional foods.



Grape Seed Extract


Evaluation and Comparison of the antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus Mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study


Introduction

Streptococcus Mutans has been implicated as primary Microorganisms which cause Dental Caries in humans. There has been an increased interest in the therapeutic properties of some medicinal Plants and Natural compounds which have demonstrated antibacterial activities. Grape is one of the Plants of this group which contains tannin and polyphenolic compound.
Aim

To evaluate and compare antibacterial activity of grape seed Extract at different concentrations with chlorhexidine gluconate against S. Mutans.
Materials and methods

Grape seeds were Extracted with ethanol/water ratio of 70:30 volume/volume. The Extracts were filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper until it becomes colorless. Streptococcus Mutans strains were taken. To check the Antimicrobial properties of grape seed Extract at different concentration and chlorhexidine gluconate, they were added to S. Mutans strain and incubated for 48 hours than colony-forming units/mL were checked.
Results

Grape seed Extract at higher concentration were found to be more Potent against S. Mutans. Chlorhexidine gluconate was found to have most Potent antibacterial action compared to all different concentrations of grape seed Extract.
Conclusion

Grape seed Extract as a Natural Antimicrobial compound has Inhibitory effect against S. Mutans.


Grape Seed Extract as a Potential Remineralizing Agent: A Comparative in vitro Study


Objective: Remineralization is an effective treatment that may
stop or reverse early Tooth Decay. Grape seed Extract (GSE) is
the Potential remineralizing agent under investigation.
Materials and methods: Sound human Tooth sections were
obtained from the cervical portion of the Root and stored in
demineralizing solution at 37°C for 96 hours to induce artificial
Root Caries lesions. The sections were divided into four treatment
groups including 6.5% grape seed Extract, sodium monofluoro-
phosphate (220 ppm) with 0.05% calcium glycerophosphate,
0.5% calcium glycerophosphate and control (no treatment). An
in vitro pH cycling model was used to cycle the demineralized
specimens through treatment solutions, acidic buffer and neutral
buffer for 8 days at 6 cycles per day. Subsequently, they were
evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscope. Data were
analyzed using analysis of variance (p < 0.05).
Results: GSE revealed less demineralization and more
remineralization compared with other groups.
Conclusion: GSE Promotes remineralization of artificial Root
Caries lesions.


Prevention of Dental Caries by grape seed Extract supplementation: A systematic review


Dental Caries are the most prominent chronic Disease of children and adults worldwide, and facilitating evidence-based, Preventative care for their Prevention is critical. Caries are traditionally and successfully Prevented by regular fluoride use, but there are opportunities to halt and restore Caries with alternative agents in addition to fluoride use. Grape seed Extract (GSE) is a readily available Plant-based supplement that, due to its concentrated levels of proanthocyanidins, has promising characteristics that may assist in Dental Caries Prevention.

The goal of this review was to investigate whether current research supports use of grape seed Extract to Prevent Dental Caries formation.

A systematic review of articles related to grape seed Extract, Prevention of Dental Caries, Inhibition of Streptococcus Mutans, and remineralization was conducted. Articles were first chosen by inclusion of Dental models that used grape seed Extract as an intervention, and then by strength of study design.

Twenty articles were reviewed. Studies overall supported three unique grape seed Extract properties facilitating Dental Caries Prevention. In the first articles reviewed, grape seed Extract Inhibited proliferation of bacterial Biofilms on Tooth surfaces. In addition, studies reviewed indicated that grape seed Extract Promoted Dental remineralization.

Caries Prevention by grape seed Extract may be unique compared with fluoride, and is linked to grape seed Extract’s bacteriostatic and collagen crosslinking properties. Future research should investigate Potential delivery methods, and benefits of combined grape seed Extract use with known Caries Preventative agents, in human participants.


Grape seed Extract: An innovation in remineralization


Aim: The aim of this study was to determine remineralizing Potential of grape seed Extract (GSE) compared to casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) through pH-cycling model and subsequent evaluation using polarized light microscope (PLM).

Subjects and methods: Twenty sound human Teeth fragments of ten Teeth were obtained from the cervical portion of the Roots and were stored in demineralizing solution for 96 h at 37°C to induce artificial Root carious lesion. The sections then were divided into four treatment groups including: 6.5% GSE, CPP-ACP, 0.5% CaGP, and control group (no treatment). The demineralized samples were then pH cycled through treatment solutions, acidic buffer, and neutral buffer for 8 days at six cycles per day. The samples were subsequently evaluated using PLM.

Statistical analysis used: Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc comparison test (P < 0.001).

Results: PLM data revealed a significantly thicker mineral precipitation band on the surface layer of the GSE-treated lesions compared to the other groups (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: GSE positively affects the demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial Root Caries lesions.


The Preventive effect of grape seed Extract on artificial Enamel Caries progression in a microbial Biofilm-induced Caries model


Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of grape seed Extract (GSE) on Enamel Caries lesion formation in an in vitro Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm model.
Methods

Enamel fragments were prepared from bovine incisors and divided into six treatment groups (n = 12): inoculated Brain Heart Infusion with 1% sucrose (BHIS), 1 mg/mL GSE, 2 mg/mL GSE, 3 mg/mL GSE, 10 ppm fluoride as NaF, and uninoculated BHIS. For Biofilm formation, Tooth fragments were incubated anaerobically in polystyrene 6-well tissue culture plates containing BHIS, the respective agents, and S. Mutans (1 × 105 CFU/mL) for 24 h at 37 °C. Culture medium was replaced with fresh BHIS and respective agents daily over a 7-day period. Following Caries lesion formation, lesion depth (LD) and relative optical density (ROD) were determined by polarized light microscopy (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), respectively, to evaluate lesion progression.
Results

LDs of the 2 mg/mL GSE group (122.86 ± 13.41 μm) and the 3 mg/mL GSE group (111.92 ± 11.39 μm) were significantly smaller than those of the 1 mg/mL GSE (198.33 ± 17.70 μm) and control groups (210.86 ± 15.50 μm) (p < 0.05). Compared with the 2 mg/mL and 3 mg/mL groups, the control and 1 mg/mL GSE groups showed significantly lower ROD values when depth was less than 200 μm, indicating greater mineral loss.
Conclusions

Dose-dependent GSE Inhibits in vitro Enamel Caries formation due to its ability to suppress growth of S. Mutans and the formation of Biofilm.


Comparative evaluation of grape seed and cranberry Extracts in preventing Enamel erosion: An optical emission spectrometric analysis


Introduction:

Dental erosion is defined as the loss of Tooth structure due to chemical process that does not involve Bacteria. The management of such a condition calls for a comprehensive approach to identifying the cause and treating it.

Aim:

The aim of this study is to comparatively evaluate the role of grape seed Extract (GSE) and cranberry Extract (CE) in preventing Dental erosion using optical emission spectrometry.

Materials and Methods:

Prepared Enamel specimens were subjected to the erosive challenge using HCl for 10 s, followed by immersion in experimental Natural groups and control fluoride group for 30 s and artificial saliva for 60 min. This cycle was repeated three times. The amounts of calcium and phosphorous present in the acid solution after 1st, 2nd, and 3rd erosive challenges were determined for each group using induced coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

Results:

The cumulative calcium and phosphorous release after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd erosive challenges were found to be the least in SnF2 group, followed by GSE group and then in CE group.

Conclusion:

The protective of GSE and CE was inferior to the gold standard control group of stannous fluoride role, against Enamel erosion. GSE showed better remineralizing effect; however, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups.


Effects of grape seed Extract on Periodontal Disease: an experimental study in rats


Abstract

Natural compounds capable of modulating the host response have received considerable attention, and herbal Products are suggested as adjunctive agents in Periodontal Disease treatment.

Objective

This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of grape seed Extract (GSE) on Periodontitis.

Material and Methods

Ligature induced Periodontitis was created in 40 rats and they were assigned to four equal groups. One group was fed laboratory diet (group A) while three groups received GSE additionally. Silk ligatures were placed around the cervical area of the mandibular first molars for four weeks to induce Periodontitis. The GSE groups were reallocated regarding GSE consumption as: for two weeks before ligation (group B; totally eight weeks), from ligation to two weeks after removal of the ligature (group C; totally six weeks), and for two weeks from ligature removal (group D; totally two weeks). Sections were assessed histologically and immunohistochemically. Inflammatory cell number (ICN), connective tissue attachment level (CAL), osteoclast density (OD), IL-10 and TGF-β stainings in Gingival epithelium (GE), connective tissue (GC), and Periodontal ligament (PL) were used as the study parameters.

Results

Lower ICN, higher CAL, and lower OD were observed in the GSE groups (p<0.05). IL-10 was more intensive in the GSE groups and in the GEs (p<0.05). Group B showed the highest IL-10 for PL (p<0.05). TGF-ß was higher in the GEs of all groups (p<0.017).

Conclusions

The results suggest anti-inflammatory activities of GSE, but further investigations are needed for clarification of these activities.


Grape seed Extract as a Potential remineralizing agent – A structured review.


Background: Dental Caries is the most common chronic Disease of mankind. Dental Caries development is considered to involve a triad of indispensable factors that can be concluded as Bacteria in Dental Plaque, carbohydrates in the diet and susceptible Teeth. Grape seed Extract (GSE) is a rich source of proanthocyanidin (PA), mainly composed of monomeric catechin and epicatechin, gallic acid and polymeric, and oligomeric procyanidins. It verified that GSE, composed mainly of PA, can positively affect the Tooth structure, thus offering a new therapy for carious lesions. Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the existing literature on the remineralizing effect of GSE on Caries-like lesion compared to other remineralizing agent. Materials and Methods: Search strategy – The Data Bases of PubMed, Cochrane, Science direct, Lilacs, and Google Scholar were searched for the period from January 2000 to October 2017. References of selected articles and relevant reviews were searched for any missed publications. Selection criteria – a in vitro study evaluating the remineralizing Potential of GSE on Enamel, Dentin, and Root Caries on human permanent, primary Teeth, and bovine Teeth. Results: The systematic search revealed a total of 340 publications from PubMed, Cochrane, Science direct, Lilacs, and Google Scholar. The articles were scrutinized based on present inclusion and exclusion criteria. 11 publications fulfilled all the inclusion criteria, and 329 publications were excluded from the review. Conclusion: With the available evidence, GSE was found to have remineralizing effect on Dental Caries. In the future, GSE with its Antimicrobial, antiGingivitis, and antiCaries effect can be utilized in Preventive and restorative materials to preserve the Dental Health.



Green tea Extract tea polyphenols


Antimicrobial activity and Biofilm formation Inhibition of green tea polyphenols on human Teeth


The Antimicrobial Effects and Biofilm formation Inhibition of tea polyphenols (TPP) Extracted from Korean green tea (Camellia sinensis L) were evaluated against 12 Oral Microorganisms. Effective Antimicrobial activity against all Microorganisms tested, including Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus Plantarum), Streptococcus spp. (Streptococcus Mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus salivarius), Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans, was shown at 2,000 μg/mL TPP within 5 min of incubation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed various morphological changes, such as the presence of perforations, the formation of cell aggregates, and the leakage of cytoplasmic materials from cells treated with TPP, depending on the Bacteria. The Potential role of TPP in Biofilm formation Inhibition on human Teeth was evaluated in BHI broth with 2 mixed strains of S. Mutans and S. sanguis. SEM analysis showed Biofilm formation on the surface of a Tooth shaken only in saline solution, whereas almost no Biofilm was observed on a Tooth incubated in TPP solution. This result suggests that TPP is effective against adherent cells of S. Mutans and S. sanguis. Thus, TPP would be useful for development as an Antimicrobial agent against Oral Microorganisms, and has great Potential for use in Mouthwash solutions for the Prevention and treatment of Dental Caries.


Preventive Effect of Green Tea Polyphenols against Dental Caries in Conventional Rats


The Effects of green tea polyphenols, Inhibitors of various biological activities of cariogenic Bacteria in vitro, on Caries development were examined using conventional rats. A total of 96 male rats were divided into 8 groups and the rats in the test groups were given tea polyphenols ranging from 0.1% to 0.5% in their cariogenic diet or drinking water for 40 days. Total fissure Caries lesions was significantly reduced by the addition of tea polyphenols to the diet or in the drinking water. Diet containing 0.1% tea polyphenols demonstrated about 40% reduction of total fissure Caries lesions. No toxic effect of tea polyphenols on rats were observed under these experimental conditions.


Cariostatic Effect of Green Tea in Comparison with Common Anticariogenic Agents: An in Vitro Study


Background and aims. Anticariogenic Effects of different Mouthrinses have been shown previously. In this in vitro study the Anticariogenic Effects of polyphenol Extract of green tea with 0.05% fluoride, 0.2% chlorhexidine and fluoride-chlorhexidine were compared.

Materials and methods. This in vitro study was performed on 50 maxillary premolars in 5 groups: 1) normal saline; 2) a 10% solution of green tea polyphenol Extract; 3) 0.05% fluoride; 4) 0.2% chlorhexidine; and 5) fluoride-chlorhexidine. Each Tooth was placed in a tube which contained a cariogenic solution. Every day the Teeth were washed (depending on the experimental groups) with 5 mL of Mouthrinse solution. The depth of the Caries was measured under a polarized light microscope. Data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 with Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests.

Results. The mean and standard deviation (in µm) of Caries depth were 194±16.43, 175±17.94, 142±9.34, 155±13.27, and 144±8.57 in groups 1 to 5, respectively, with significant differences between the groups (P<0.001). Tukey test showed that although there was no significant difference in the depth of Caries in groups 1 and 2 (P>0.001), they were significantlyless than those in groups 3 to 5 (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between Decay depth of groups 3, 4 and 5 (P>0.001).

Conclusion. The Anticariogenic effect of fluoride-chlorhexidine was the highest among the groups. Although green tea showed higher cariostatic Effects than normal saline, in comparison with other Mouthrinses, it is less effective. More re-search is strongly recommended for clinical use of green tea as an Anticariogenic agent.


Green tea in dentistry


Green tea and its medical advantages assume a job in Oral Cavity. High atomic weight polyphenols are separated from green tea have cell reinforcement, antibacterial cariostatic, antitumor exercises. It also helps to treat Dental Caries, Periodontal Diseases, and also for treating cancers.


Oolong Tea Polyphenols Inhibit Experimental Dental Caries in SPF Rats Infected with Mutatis Streptococci


An Extract of oolong tea (semifermented tea leaves of Camellia sinensis) and its chromatographically isolated polyphenolic compound was examined for in vitro Inhibitory Effects on glucosyltransferases (GTases) of mutans streptococci and on Caries development in Sprague-Dawley rats infected with mutans streptococci. The samples showed no detectable effect on the growth of mutans streptococci. However, insoluble glucan synthesis from sucrose by the GTases of Streptococcus Mutans MT8148R and Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 was markedly Inhibited, as was sucrose-dependent cell adherence of these mutans streptococci. The administration of the oolong tea Extract and the isolated polyphenol compound into diet 2000 and drinking water resulted in significant reductions in Caries development and Plaque accumulation in the rats infected with mutans streptococci. The active components in the oolong tea Extract were presumptively identified as polymeric polyphenols which were specific for oolong tea leaves. These results indicate that the oolong tea polyphenolic compounds could be useful for controlling Dental Caries.


 

 


Guaijaverin


Guaijaverin – a Plant flavonoid as Potential antiPlaque agent against Streptococcus Mutans


Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-Streptococcus Mutans activity and the in vitro Effects of subminimal Inhibitory concentrations of guaijaverin isolated from Psidium guajava Linn. on cariogenic properties of Strep. mutans.

Methods and Results: Bioautography-directed chromatographic fractionation, yield biologically active compound, quercetin-3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (guaijaverin), from crude methanol Extract of P. guajava. Growth-Inhibitory activity of the compound against Strep. mutans of both clinical and type strain cultures was evaluated. The anti-Strep. mutans activity of the guaijaverin was found to be bacteriostatic, both heat and acid stable and alkali labile with the minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4 mg ml−1 for MTCC 1943 and 2 mg ml−1 for CLSM 001. The sub-MIC concentrations (0·0078–2 mg ml−1) of the guaijaverin were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid Production, cell-surface hydrophobicity, sucrose-dependent adherence to glass surface and sucrose-induced aggregation of Strep. mutans.

Conclusions: The active flavonoid compound, quercetin-3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (guaijaverin) demonstrated high Potential antiPlaque agent by Inhibiting the growth of the Strep. mutans.

Significance and Impact of the Study: This study demonstrated the new growth-Inhibitory compound guaijaverin against Strep. mutans and led to the acceptance of traditional medicine and Natural Products as an alternative form of Health care.


Growth Inhibitory Effects of Antimicrobial Natural Products against Cariogenic and Health-Associated Oral bacterial Species


Purpose: This study investigated whether selected Natural Products could speci fically target the growth o f a Caries
associated bacterial species (Streptococcus Mutans) without affecting the viability of a Health-associated Oral comme n-
sal bacterial species (Streptococcus sanguinis).
Materials and Methods: Agar diffusion assays were used to screen the Natural Products for bacterial-growth Inhibitory
Effects and the diameters of the Inhibitory zones for the two bacterial species compared. The minimum Inhibitory co n-
centrations (MIC) of the Natural Products that showed growth Inhibitory Effects were determined using the broth micro-
dilution method.
Results: Except for the berr y Extracts (cranberry, wild blueberr y, and strawberr y), all the other selected Natural pro d-
ucts (peppermint, ginger, cinnamon, rosemary, liquorice, xanthorrrhizol, tt-farnesol, guaijaverin, and maceli gnan)
exhibited varying degrees of bacterial growth Inhibition. The MIC values ranged from as low as 4 μg/ml for xanthorrrhizol
to 1000 μg/ml for guaijaverin. All the growth Inhibitory Natural agents tested showed similar Inhibition for both
S. mutans and S. sanguinis.
Conclusions: Although several Natural Products exerted signi ficant antibacterial Effects, none had selective Inhibitor y
action on the growth of S. mutans.



Hesperidin


Hesperidin reduces Dentin wear after erosion and erosion/abrasion cycling in vitro


Objective

To evaluate the action of hesperidin (HPN) at different concentrations to Prevent Dentin erosive wear, associated or not to abrasion.

Methods

A study with 6 experimental groups (n = 10) for erosion (experiment 1) and another 6 for erosion + abrasion (experiment 2). The treatments were: distilled water (DW), DW with collagenase (DW + Col), 0.46% epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and 0.1%, 0.5% or 1% HPN. The specimens were submitted to a cycle (3x/day) for 5 days that consisted of immersion on 1% citric acid (5 min), artificial saliva (60 min), treatment (5 min), brushing (150 movements only in experiment 2), and artificial saliva (60 min / overnight). Collagenase was added in artificial saliva for all groups except DW-group. Dentin changes were assessed with optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. Data were submitted to one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α = 0.05).

Results

For experiment 1, DW showed the lowest wear and did not significantly differ from EGCG. DW + Col showed the highest wear, being significantly different from HPN at 1%. In experiment 2, DW showed the lowest wear and DW + Col the highest. EGCG showed less wear than the three groups treated with HPN. In addition, for both cycling models, there were no significant differences among the three concentrations of HPN analyzed. In micrographs of HPN-treated groups, it could be observed the formation of a barrier on the Dentin that Promoted the obliteration of the tubules.

Conclusions

HPN was able to preserve the demineralized organic matrix layer but did not overcome the effect of EGCG.


In vitro effect of hesperidin on Root Dentin collagen and de/re-mineralization


The aims of this study were to investigate the Effects of hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, on human Root Dentin demineralization and collagen preservation, and compare it with chlorhexidine and grape seed Extract. Specimens were assigned to different treatment groups: hesperidin, chlorhexidine and grape seed Extract. Specimens were subjected to pH cycling by demineralization for 14 h, incubation in testing solutions for 2 h and remineralization in presence of bacterial-derived collagenase for 8 h, for 8 days. Calcium release was measured by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and degraded collagen matrix was investigated by hydroxyproline assay. Specimens were assessed longitudinally with transverse micro-radiography to investigate lesion depth and mineral loss. In hesperidin and grape seed Extract groups, demineralization was reduced when the collagen matrix was preserved. The hesperidin group showed the lowest value in lesion depth and mineral loss, indicating that hesperidin Inhibited demineralization and probably enhanced remineralization even under fluoride-free conditions.


EFFECT OF HESPERIDIN ON antibacterial ACTIVITY AND ADHESIVE PROPERTIES OF AN ETCH-AND-RINSE ADHESIVE SYSTEM


Objectives: To evaluate the Antimicrobial activity and adhesive properties of a simplified total-
etch adhesive system containing different proportions of Hesperidin (HPN).

Materials and Methods:
Hesperidin was added to Dental adhesive in three different ratios
producing four experimental adhesive groups (0 [control], 0.2, 0.5, and 1%). The antibacterial

activity of the prepared adhesive groups was studied using agar disc-diffusion test against

Streptococcus Mutans. The viscosity of Dental adhesives was evaluated using a cone and plate

viscometer. Microtensile bond strength was tested immediately and after thermocycling.

The fracture patterns were examined using a stereomicroscope. Data were statistically analyzed

using ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (α = 0.05).

Results:
The Antimicrobial activity of HPN-incorporated experimental adhesives exhibited
a significant Inhibitory effect against Streptococcus Mutans compared with the control (P < 0.05).

The viscosity of the experimental adhesives increased with increasing the concentrations of HPN

incorporation into the adhesive. The incorporation of 0.2 wt% and 0.5 wt% HPN into the Dental

adhesive significantly increased the immediate μTBS (P < 0.05). However, experimental adhesives

incorporating 1 wt% HPN showed no significant differences in the μTBS values compared with the

unmodified adhesive resin (P > 0.05). After thermocycling, all studied adhesive groups revealed

significant reduction in μTBS (p < 0.001).

Conclusions:
0.5 wt% HPN incorporated Dental adhesives could achieve a promising
antibacterial effect without adversely affect the adhesive characteristics; however, thermocycling

significantly reduced the μTBS.


Ameliorative effect of hesperidin on ligation-induced Periodontitis in rats


Background

This study evaluated the ameliorative effect of hesperidin (HES), an anti-inflammatory flavanone, in rats with ligation (Lig)-induced Periodontitis.

Methods

A total of 48 rats were randomly divided into non-ligation group (NL), Lig group, and two ligation-plus-HES groups (L+H). HES was administered immediately after ligature placement at a dose of 75 or 150 mg/kg by intragastric feeding. Destruction of the ligated maxillary second and mandibular first molars were evaluated by Dental radiography, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), and histometry performed after sacrificing the rats on the seventh day. The expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger (m)RNAs in the gingiva were determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expression of iNOS was examined by immunohistochemistry.

Results

The Dental radiography and micro-CT findings revealed significantly increased alveolar bone loss in the Lig group, which was significantly Prevented by HES. The histometry results revealed less Gingival Inflammation and connective tissue loss in the L+H groups compared with that in the Lig group. The mRNA expression levels of IL-6, IL-1 β, and iNOS were significantly increased in the Lig group but were reduced in the L+H groups. The immunostaining results showed that the ligation-induced iNOS expression was also decreased by HES.

Conclusions

Oral administration of HES Promotes an ameliorative effect against the ligation-induced alveolar bone loss and effectively Inhibits the Production of proinflammatory mediators in rats with experimentally induced Periodontitis. Therefore, HES may be a good candidate for modulating Oral inflammatory Diseases.


Effect of hesperidin in vitro on Root Dentine collagen and demineralization


Objectives

Caries progress might be controlled when collagen matrix could be preserved after demineralization. The aim of this pH cycling study was to investigate the effect of hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid antioxidant, on Dentine collagen and remineralization in Dentine lesion, and compared with that of chlorhexidine.
Methods

The pH cycling was employed on bovine Root Dentine by demineralization for 14 h, incubation in testing solutions (hesperidin or chlorhexidine) for 2 h and remineralization with Bacteria-derived collagenase for 8 h, for 8 days. Calcium release was measured by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and degraded collagen matrix by collagenase was investigated by assaying hydroxyproline. The lesion depth and mineral loss was evaluated by means of transverse microradiography.
Results

The effect of testing solutions had a significant difference on the results of chemical analyses (p < 0.0115 for calcium release; p < 0.0008 for degradated collagen). The lesion depth and mineral loss were reduced in the lesions where were incubated with hesperidin and chlorhexidine. The remineralization in deep lesions was found when the matrix was incubated in hesperidin, whilst no mineral uptake in deep lesion when incubated in chlorhexidine.
Conclusion

Hesperidin preserved collagen and Inhibited demineralization, and enhanced remineralization even under the fluoride-free condition.


Inhibition of Dentine collagen degradation by hesperidin: an in situ study


Dentine Caries is a process of demineralization and subsequent degradation of the collagenous matrix. Host-derived proteolytic enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), play a role in this process of Dentine collagen degradation. Hampering this degradation retards the Caries process. Dietary antioxidants, such as the flavonoid hesperidin, can Inhibit the proteolytic activity of MMPs and act as Natural stabilizers of collagen. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-collagenolytic activity of hesperidin in an in situ model. A single-blind, split-Mouth, in situ experiment was designed. Seventeen participants received two completely demineralized Dentine specimens placed contralaterally in the buccal flanges of their partial prosthesis. During the 4-wk experimental period, the participants immersed the Dentine specimens in a test solution [1,000 parts per million (p.p.m.) hesperidin] or a control solution (saline), twice daily for 3 min. After the in situ period, the specimens were retrieved and their collagen content was determined. A saliva sample was taken at the start and at the end of the experimental period, to assess collagenolytic activity. A significant protection of collagen, of 24%, was observed in the hesperidin-treated specimens compared with the control-treated specimens. No correlation was found between salivary collagenolytic activity and loss of collagen in the control-treated specimens. The results of this in situ study show that hesperidin could play a role in the preservation of Dentine collagen matrix.


Hesperidin Promotes differentiation of alveolar osteoblasts via Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway


Alveolar bone has a high plasticity. The Health of alveolar bones directly determines the success of Oral imPlant surgery, and the Health and functions of Oral and maxillofacial system. Hesperidin (HES) has many pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, promotion of osteoblast differentiation, but its effect on alveolar osteoblasts is rarely reported. Healthy human alveolar osteoblasts were treated by HES (0.1, 1, 10, 100 μmol/l) and Wnt signaling pathway Inhibitor Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1). Then the cell osteogenic differentiation was detected by Alizarin Red S staining, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was detected by ALP kit. Expressions of genetic markers such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), osterix (OSX), and osteocalcin (OCN) of osteoblasts were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Expressions of Wnt/β-Catenin pathway-related proteins were measured by Western blot (WB) analysis. HES increased numbers of the cells stained red by Alizarin Red S staining, the ALP activity, and the mRNA expression of Runx2, BMP2, OSX, and OCN, and activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. However, DKK-1 reversed the differentiation function of human alveolar osteoblasts accelerated by HES. HES Promoted the differentiation of human alveolar osteoblasts through the activation of the Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway.



honokiol


Antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol isolated from Magnolia officinalis


The Antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol, the main constituents of Magnolia officinalis was investigated. The Antimicrobial activity was assayed by the agar dilution method using brain heart infusion medium and the minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined for each compound using a twofold serial dilution assay. The results showed that honokiol and magnolol have a marked Antimicrobial effect (MIC = 25 µg/mL) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, but did not show Antimicrobial activity (MIC ≥ 100 µg/mL) for Shigella flexneii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results indicate that honokiol and magnolol, although less Potent than tetracycline, show a significant Antimicrobial activity for Periodontal Pathogens. Hence we suggest that honokiol and magnolol might have the Potential to be an adjunct in the treatment of Periodontitis.


Dental Plaque regrowth studies to evaluate chewing Gum formulations incorporating magnolia bark Extract


The Plaque Inhibiting properties of magnolia bark Extract (MBE) were assessed in a volunteer trial following the consumption of various sugar-free chewing Gum formulations over a period of 4-days. Paired t-tests demonstrated significant (p < 0.15) differences between the placebo and a Gum containing MBE (0.4%) plus lauramide arginine ethyl ester (LAE) (0.5%) with respect to% Plaque coverage (36.3% vs 34.0%) and area of Plaque fluorescence (109.4 mm2 vs 75.2 mm2). These findings were supported by microbiological counts of total salivary Bacteria (7.77 log10 cfu/ml vs 7.45 log10 cfu/ml) as well as Streptococcus spp. (6.76 log10 cfu/ml vs 6.29 log10 cfu/ml). MBE (0.4%) + LAE (0.5%) delivered by chewing Gum had a moderate Inhibitory effect on Plaque formation and salivary Bacteria. Limiting the formation of Dental Plaque and salivary Bacteria, specifically Oral streptococci, could contribute towards an improvement in Oral Health with respect to Gum Disease and Caries.



Houttuynia cordata Extract


Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases


Houttuynia cordata (HC) (Saururaceae) has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for Healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP) prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin Diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol Extract of HCP (eHCP) has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory Effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin Diseases. In this study, we focused on novel Effects of HCP against Oral infectious Diseases, such as Periodontal Disease and Dental Caries. We determined the Antimicrobial and antibiofilm Effects of water solution of HCP ethanol Extract (wHCP) against important Oral Pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory Effects on human Oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate Antimicrobial Effects against some Oral Microorganisms and profound antibiofilm Effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus Mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic Effects and could Inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 Productions by Porphyromonas Gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human Oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing Oral infectious Diseases as a Mouthwash for Oral care.


Houttuynia cordata suppresses the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-induced increase of inflammatory-related genes in cultured human Gingival epithelial cells


Background/purpose

Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory Disease. Gingival epithelium is the primary barrier against invasion of Microorganisms and produces inflammatory cytokines. Our previous studies showed that regulating the function on the Gingival epithelium was useful in suppressing the onset of Periodontal Disease. Houttuynia cordata is commonly used in traditional oriental medicine formulations and has been associated with a broad range of pharmacological activities. To investigate the Potential of H. cordata as a Preventive medicine, we examined the effect of H. cordata on the expression of inflammatory-related genes in human Gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) exposed to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.
Materials and methods

The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Results

A. actinomycetemcomitans facilitated the mRNA expression of MMP-3, IL-8, IL-6, and ICAM-1 in HGECs, whereas these mRNA levels were attenuated by the H. cordata treatment. In addition, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade, which was reported to be involved in A. actinomycetemcomitans-induced increases in MMP-3, IL-8, or ICAM-1, was disturbed by the H. cordata treatment in HGECs. Furthermore, H. cordata also Inhibited the tumor necrosis factor-α-induced enhancement in these genes in HGECs.
Conclusion

These results suggest that H. cordata suppresses the expression of inflammatory-related genes in Gingival epithelial cells by Inhibiting the ERK signaling cascade. This might result in the suppression of inflammatory response in Gingival epithelium, thereby contributing to the Prevention of Periodontitis.


antibiofilm and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Houttuynia cordata Decoction for Oral Care


Dental Biofilms that form in the Oral Cavity play a critical role in the pathogenesis of several infectious Oral Diseases, including Dental Caries, Periodontal Disease, and Oral candidiasis. Houttuynia cordata (HC, Saururaceae) is a widely used traditional medicine, for both internal and external application. A decoction of dried HC leaves (dHC) has long been consumed as a Health-promoting herbal tea in Japan. We have recently reported that a water solution of HC poultice ethanol Extract (wHCP) exerts Antimicrobial and antibiofilm Effects against several important Oral Pathogens. It also exhibits anti-inflammatory Effects on human keratinocytes. In our current study, we examined the Effects of dHC on infectious Oral Pathogens and Inflammation. Our results demonstrated that dHC exerts moderate Antimicrobial Effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other Oral Microorganisms. dHC also exhibited antibiofilm Effects against MRSA, Fusobacterium nucleatum (involved in Dental Plaque formation), and Candida albicans and Inhibitory Effects on interleukin-8, CCL20, IP-10, and GROα Productions by human Oral keratinocytes stimulated by Porphyromonas Gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (a cause of Periodontal Disease), without cytotoxic Effects. This suggests that dHC exhibits multiple activities in Microorganisms and host cells. dHC can be easily prepared and may be effective in preventing infectious Oral Diseases.



Humulus lupulus L.


Inhibition ofStreptococcus Mutans and Other Oral streptococci by hop (Humulus lupulus L.) constituents


We report the Inhibition of the causative agents of Dental Caries, Streptococcus Mutans and other Oral streptococci, by the Antimicrobially active ingredients of the hop Plant (Humulus lupulus L.). The hop constituents studied were purified beta acid, xanthohumol, isoalpha acid and tetra iso-alpha acid. Cruder hop Extracts were also investigated. The Antimicrobial activity of these hop constituents was tested against four strainsof Streptococcus Mutans as well as one strain each ofStreptococcus sanguis andStreptococcus salivarius and compared to Antimicrobial essential oils used in Mouthwashes in two independent assay systems. We found that all tested hop constituents Inhibited the Streptococci. The minimum Inhibitory concentration at pH 7.5 ranged from 2 to 50 μg/ml depending on the microorganism and hop phytochemical tested. Contrary to a previous report, there was no activity enhancement by ascorbic acid over and above the enhancement due to pH lowering. Thére was no resistance development to beta acid after 10 passages in a subInhibitory concentration of this acid. Antimicrobial activity of hop constituents was found to be greater than other Plant Products such as thymol, nerol, cinnamon oil, oil of clove, menthol and eucalyptol. The possibilities of using hop constituents in Mouthwashes are discussed.


Humulus lupulus in Management of OroDental Pathogens -An Update


Oral Diseases are major Health problems with Dental Caries and Periodontal Diseases among the most important Preventable
global infectious Diseases. Oral Health influences the general quality of life and poor Oral Health is linked to chronic
conditions and systemic Diseases. More than 750 species of Bacteria that inhabit the Oral Cavity, a number are implicated in
Oral Diseases. Development of Dental Caries involves gram positive Bacteria and gram negative Bacteria are associated with
Periodontal problems. Natural phytochemicals obtained from Plants is a good use of traditional medications. The aim of the
article is to focus on the therapeutic properties of Humulus lupulus in the field of Dental practice.



Lactoferrin


Lactoferrin and oral diseases: current status and perspective in periodontitis


Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-binding glycoprotein able to chelate two ferric ions per molecule, is a component of human secretions synthesized by exocrine glands and neutrophils in infection/inflammation sites. Lactoferrin in saliva represents an important defence factor against bacterial injuries including those related to Streptococcus mutans and periodontopathic bacteria through its ability to decrease bacterial growth, biofilm development, iron overload, reactive oxygen formation and inflammatory processes.A growing body of research suggests that inflammatory periodontal disease involves a failure of resolution pathways to restore tissue homeostasis. There is an important distinction between anti-inflammation and resolution; anti-inflammation is pharmacologic intervention in inflammatory pathways, whereas resolution involves biologic pathways restoring inflammatory homeostasis. An appropriate regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis might be useful in reducing periodontal tissue destruction. Recently, the multi-functional IL-6 is emerging as an important factor able to modulate bone, iron and inflammatory homeostasis.Here, we report an overview of Lf functions as well as for the first time Lf anti-inflammatory ability against periodontitis in in vitro model and observational clinical study. In in vitro model, represented by gingival fibroblasts infected with Prevotella intermedia, Lf exerted a potent anti-inflammatory activity. In the observational clinical trial performed through bovine Lf (bLf) topically administered to volunteers suffering from periodontitis, bLf decreased cytokines, including IL-6 in crevicular fluid, edema, bleeding, pocket depth, gingival and plaque index, thus improving clinical attachment levels.Even if other clinical trials are required, these results provide strong evidence for a instead of an therapeutic potential of this multifunctional natural protein.


Lactoferrin and oral pathologies: a therapeutic treatment


The oral cavity is a non-uniform, extraordinary environment characterized by mucosal, epithelial, abiotic surfaces and secretions as saliva. Aerobic and anaerobic commensal and pathogenic microorganisms colonize the tongue, teeth, jowl, gingiva, and periodontium. Commensals exert an important role in host defenses, while pathogenic microorganisms can nullify this protective function causing oral and systemic diseases. Every day, 750–1000 mL of saliva, containing several host defense constituents including lactoferrin (Lf), are secreted and swallowed. Lf is a multifunctional iron-chelating cationic glycoprotein of innate immunity. Depending on, or regardless of its iron-binding ability, Lf exerts bacteriostatic, bactericidal, antibiofilm, antioxidant, antiadhesive, anti-invasive, and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we report the protective role of Lf in different oral pathologies, such as xerostomia, halitosis, alveolar or maxillary bone damage, gingivitis, periodontitis, and black stain. Unlike antibiotic therapy, which is ineffective against bacteria that are within a biofilm, adherent, or intracellular, the topical administration of Lf, through its simultaneous activity against microbial replication, biofilms, adhesion, and invasiveness, as well as inflammation, has been proven to be efficient in the treatment of all known oral pathologies without any adverse effects.

 


NANO – HYDROXYAPATITE


Comparison between Fluoride and Nano-hydroxyapatite in Remineralizing Initial Enamel Lesion: An in vitro Study


Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAP) paste and fluoride varnish in remineralizing initial enamel lesion in young permanent teeth and their ability to resist secondary caries under dynamic pH cycling quantitatively and qualitatively.

Materials and methods: Initial caries-like lesions were artificially developed on 45 specimens. Specimens were divided into three groups: (1) Control (without treatment), (2) fluoride varnish (3M ESPE), and (3) nano-HAP paste (Desensibilize Nano P). The nano-HAP paste was applied twice separated by one pH cycle, and the varnish was applied only once followed by 7 days of pH cycling. All specimens were examined using DIAGNOdent® pen (KaVo, Germany), and a representative specimen was randomly selected from each group for qualitative evaluation using scanning electron microscope (SEM) at four stages: Baseline, after lesion formation, immediately after remineralization, and after pH cycling. Data were statistically analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 20.

Results: The degree of demineralization was significantly elevated in control group; however, no significant difference was found between fluoride varnish group and nano-HAP paste group (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Nano-HAP paste showed promising long-term protective effect in terms of surface depositions and maintaining a smooth surface compared with fluoride varnish.

Clinical significance: Based on the findings of this study, nano-HAP paste might be recommended as alternative remineralizing agent with lower fluoride concentration than fluoride varnish that could be beneficial for children, pregnant females, and those who are at high risk of dental fluorosis.


In vitro effects of nano-hydroxyapatite paste on initial enamel carious lesions


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the protective effect of remineralizing agents on enamel caries lesions using surface Knoop microhardness testing (KHN) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

Methods: Forty-eight human enamel blocks were assigned to four groups (N=12): (1) control (without agent); (2) fluoride varnish (Duraphat); (3) nano-HAP paste (Desensibilize Nano P); and (4) casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste (MI Paste Plus). Incipient caries-like lesions were artificially developed. Cariogenic challenge (pH-cycling) was performed for seven days. The pastes were applied before each immersion in demineralization solution, and the varnish was applied only once. KHN values were obtained at baseline, after incipient enamel lesion, and after challenge. The percentage of surface hardness recovery (%SMHR) was performed, and the surface morphology was evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). ANOVA, Tukey’s, and student paired t tests were applied at P<.05.

Results: After the cariogenic challenge, the nano-HAP group showed significantly higher KHN and %SMHR values than varnish. The CPP-ACP group showed no increase in KHN. The nano-HAP group showed, via AFM, a protective layer formation with globular deposits on the surface.

Conclusion: SMHR and AFM morphology revealed that nano-hydroxyapatite paste showed a protective effect against in vitro enamel caries development.


Efficacy of nano-hydroxyapatite on caries prevention-a systematic review and meta-analysis


Introduction/objectives: The review systematically explored in vivo or in situ studies investigating the efficacy of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) to reduce initiation of or to remineralize initial caries lesions.

Data: Prospective controlled (non-)randomized clinical trials investigating the efficacy of a nHA compared to any other (placebo) treatment or untreated/standard control.

Sources: Three electronic databases (Central Cochrane, PubMed-MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE) were screened. Outcomes were, e.g., ICDAS score, laser fluorescence, enamel remineralization rate, mineral loss, and lesion depth. No language or time restrictions were applied. Risk of bias and level of evidence were graded using the Risk of Bias 2.0 tool and GRADE profiler.

Study selection/results: Five in vivo (and 5 in situ) studies with at least 633 teeth (1031 specimens) being assessed in more than 420 (95) patients were included. No meta-analysis could be performed for in vivo studies due to the high heterogeneity of the study designs and the variety of outcomes. In situ studies indicate that under demineralization conditions, NaF was able to hinder demineralization, whereas nHA did not; simultaneously, nHA did not differ from the fluoride-free control. In contrast, under remineralizing conditions, nHA and NaF show the same remineralizing potential. However, the level of evidence was very low. Furthermore, six studies showed a high risk of bias, and six studies were funded/published by the manufacturers of the tested products.

Conclusion: The low number of clinical studies, the relatively short follow-up periods, the high risks of bias, and the limiting grade of evidence do not allow for conclusive evidence on the efficacy of nHA.

Clinical relevance: No conclusive evidence on the efficacy of nHA could be obtained based on the low number of clinical studies, the relatively short follow-up periods, the high risks of bias, the limiting grade of evidence, and study conditions that do not reflect the everyday conditions.


Effect of Two Remineralizing Agents on Initial Caries-like Lesions in Young Permanent Teeth: An in Vitro Study


Aim: To compare the effect of nano-hydroxyapatite (9000 ppm F) and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (900 ppm F) pastes on initial enamel carious lesions of young permanent teeth.

Materials and methods: Sixty extracted young premolars with a standardized window on enamel were immersed in a demineralizing solution for 48 hours to produce subsurface enamel lesions. They were divided into three groups according to remineralizing agents (n = 20) group I: nano-hydroxyapatite paste; group II: casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride paste; and group III: control (without an agent). The enamel surface microhardness (SMH) was measured at baseline, after the incipient enamel lesion, and after treatment. Additional twenty young premolars were selected and prepared as mentioned above for surface morphology evaluation by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Results: No significant difference was found in mean surface microhardness in teeth treated with nano-hydroxyapatite paste and those treated with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride p = 0.26. SEM showed improvement in surface defects of demineralized enamel in the two test groups.

Conclusion: Nano-hydroxyapatite and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride pastes were effec -tive in rehardening the initial enamel caries lesions in young permanent teeth.

Clinical significance: The best strategy for caries management is to focus on the methods of improving the reminer-alization process with the aid of the remineralizing agents. The current study compared the remineralizing effect of two remineralizing agents. Within the limitations of the study, both remineralizing agents were effective for remineralization of early caries-like lesions.


Biomimetic hydroxyapatite and caries prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis


Dental caries is still one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Research has shown that fluoride has a role in caries prevention. For many reasons there are concerns about young children using fluoride-containing oral care products. Consequently, there is a need to identify effective fluoride-free products. A large body of literature now exists on the use of biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) as an active ingredient in oral care products to combat caries.

Aim: To conduct a systematic review of the clinical evidence of the effects of HAP-based fluoride-free oral care products in caries reduction and conduct a meta-analysis of available randomized clinical trials (RCTs).

Methods: Using the PICO question “In individuals of all ages (P), do fluoride-free oral care products containing HAP as the anti-caries agent (I), compared to products with fluoride or without caries control products (C), reduce the risk of dental caries (O)?” Ovid MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched using the following keywords: apatite, hydroxyapatite, caries, dental decay, dentin(e), enamel, toothpaste, dentifrice, mouthwash, gels, biofilm, (dental) plaque, ero(de, ded, sion), (de, re)mineral(ise, ized, ised, ization, isation). Reviews, tooth whitening, tooth sensitivity, and in vitro studies were excluded. PRISMA was used for the search and GRADE was used to assess quality. Clinical trials were subjected to the Cochrane Risk of Bias assessment followed by meta-analysis.

Results: 291 studies were retrieved; 22 were suitable for systematic review, 5 were clinical caries trials and 4 were RCTs. A meta-analysis of 3 RCTs was possible showing HAP provided 17% protection against caries. The other 17 trials had simpler proxy outcomes for anticaries effects. Some trials showed non-inferior performance of HAP products compared to those with fluoride.

Conclusion: There is good evidence that hydroxyapatite in oral care products in the absence of fluoride effectively reduces caries.


Enamel remineralization and repair results of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite toothpaste on deciduous teeth: an effective option to fluoride toothpaste


Background: Dental caries is a recognized worldwide public health problem. Despite being one of the most effective strategies against dental caries, the excessive use of fluorine may result in a potential risk of developing dental fluorosis especially in children under age of six. The purpose of this work is to analyze a fluorine-free toothpaste containing Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite to assess enamel re-mineralizing and repairing properties.

Results: The study was performed in vitro and in vivo, comparing the hydroxyapatite toothpaste with two others toothpaste containing different fluorine concentrations. The coating effect of the micro-structured Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles reintegrates the enamel with a biomimetic film reproducing the structure and the morphology of the biologic Hydroxyapatite of the enamel. As demonstrated, the coating is due to the deposit of a new layer of apatite, which presents fewer particles than the natural enamel, not based on the chemical-physical changes occurring in fluorinated toothpastes. Moreover, it shows resistance to brushing as a consequence of chemical bonds between the synthetic and natural crystals of the enamel.

Conclusions: The use of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite toothpastes has proven to be a valuable prevention measure against dental caries in primary dentition since it prevents the risk of fluorosis.


 

 


Isopanduratin A


Isopanduratin A from Kaempferia pandurata as an active antibacterial agent against cariogenic Streptococcus Mutans


An antibacterial compound active against Streptococcus Mutans was isolated from Kaempferia pandurata and identified as isopanduratin A using 1H NMR, 13C NMR and EI-MS. The minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of isopanduratin A was 4 mg/l which was much lower than that of some other Natural Anticariogenic agents such as sanguinarine (12 mg/l), green tea Extract and carvacrol (125 mg/l), thymol (250 mg/l) and isoeugenol and eucalyptol (500 mg/l). The bactericidal test showed that isopanduratin A completely inactivated S. Mutans at 20 mg/l in 1 min. Significant Inhibitory activity of isopanduratin A was also observed against S. sobrinus, S. sanguinis and S. salivarius with an MIC of 4 mg/l. Damage to the cell membrane and cell wall of S. Mutans by isopanduratin A was shown using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results suggest that isopanduratin A could be employed as a Potential antibacterial agent for preventing Dental Caries.



Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb essential oil


Essential Oil from Berries of Lebanese Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb Displays Similar antibacterial Activity to Chlorhexidine but Higher Cytocompatibility with Human Oral Primary Cells


Chlorhexidine (CHX), one of the most effective drugs administered for Periodontal treatment, presents collateral Effects including toxicity when used for prolonged periods; here, we have evaluated the bactericidal potency and the cytocompatibility of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb essential oil (EO) in comparison with 0.05% CHX. The EO was Extracted from berries by hydrodistillation and components identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. bacterial Inhibition halo analysis, quantitative cell viability 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-5-[(phenyl amino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide assay (XTT), and colony forming unit (CFU) count were evaluated against the two Biofilm formers Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus Mutans. Finally, cytocompatibility was assessed with human primary Gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and mucosal keratinocytes (HK). The resulting EO was mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes. An Inhibition halo test demonstrated that both Bacteria were sensitive to the EO; XTT analysis and CFU counts confirmed that 10-fold-diluted EO determined a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in Bacteria count and viability towards both Biofilm and planktonic forms in a comparable manner to those obtained with CHX. Moreover, EO displayed higher cytocompatibility than CHX (p < 0.05). In conclusion, EO exhibited bactericidal activity similar to CHX, but a superior cytocompatibility, making it a promising antiseptic alternative to CHX.


 


K2 mk4


Vitamin K2 and its Impact on Tooth Epigenetics


The impact of nutritional signals plays an important role in systemic-based «models» of Dental Caries. Present hypotheses now focus both on the Oral environment and other organs, like the nervous system and brain. The Tooth is subjected to shear forces, nourishing and Cleansing, and its present “support system” (the hypothalamus/parotid axis) relays endocrine signaling to the parotid gland. Sugar consumption enhances hypothalamic oxidative stress (ROS), reversing Dentinal fluid flow, thus creating an enhanced vulnerability to the Oral bacterial flora. The acid, produced by the Oral bacterial flora, then leads to erosion of the Dentine, and an irreversible loss of Dental Enamel layers. This attack brings about inflammatory responses, yielding metalloproteinase-based “dissolution”. However, vitamin K2 (i.e. MK-4/MK-7) may come to the rescue with its antioxidant property, locally (Mouth Cavity) or systemically (via the brain), thus sustaining/preserving hormone-induced Dentinal fluid flow (encompassing oxidative stress) and boosting/magnifying bodily inflammatory responses. However, sugars may also reduce the Tooth’s Natural defences through endocrine signaling, thus enhancing acid-supported Enamel Dentine erosion. Vitamin K2 sustains and improves the salivary buffering capacity via its impact on the secretion/flow of calcium and inorganic phosphates. Interestingly, primitive cultures’ diets (low-sugar and high-K2 diets) preserve Dental Health.


The Effect of Vitamin K2 on Osteogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells: An In Vitro Study


Introduction: Dental Pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been shown to have great capacity to differentiation toward the osteoblast lineage and they can be considered as a great cell source for bone tissue engineering. The vitamin K family, especially vitamin K2 (MK-4), have been shown to have an osteoprotective role. In this study, we have investigated the effect of various concentrations of MK-4 on differentiation of DPSCs into osteoblast.

Materials and Methods: DPSCs were isolated and characterized to expression the mesenchymal markers. These cells were treated with osteogenic medium with and without of various concentrations of MK-4 for 14 days. Osteogenic capability and extracellular calcium deposition were assessed by ALP assay and alizarin red staining, respectively, at zero, 7, 14 days after induction.

Result: the additional of MK-4 at concentration of 10 µM with osteogenic medium had a significant effect on differentiation DPSCs into osteoblast (P<0.05) at 14 day, as it confirmed by both ALP activity assay and alizarin red staining.

Conclusion: MK-4 can Promote differentiation of DPSCs into osteoblast in vitro so have a Potential to be considered in improvement of cell-based bone tissue engineering therapies.


 


K2 mk7


A hypothetical role for vitamin K2 in the endocrine and exocrine aspects of Dental Caries


The growing interest in Oral/systemic links demand new paradigms to understand Disease processes. New opportunities for Dental research, particularly in the fields of neuroscience and endocrinology will emerge. The role of the hypothalamus portion of the brain cannot be underestimated. Under the influence of nutrition, it plays a significant role in the systemic model of Dental Caries. Currently, the traditional theory of Dental Caries considers only the Oral environment and does not recognize any significant role for the brain. The Healthy Tooth, however, has a centrifugal fluid flow to nourish and Cleanse it. This is moderated by the hypothalamus/parotid axis which signals the endocrine portion of the parotid glands. High sugar intake creates an increase in reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the hypothalamus. When this signaling mechanism halts or reverses the Dentinal fluid flow, it renders the Tooth vulnerable to Oral Bacteria, which can now attach to the Tooth’s surface. Acid produced by Oral Bacteria such as Strep Mutans and lactobacillus can now de-mineralize the Enamel and irritate the Dentin. The acid attack stimulates an inflammatory response which results in Dentin breakdown from the body’s own matrix metalloproteinases. Vitamin K2 (K2) has been shown to have an antioxidant Potential in the brain and may prove to be a Potent way to preserve the endocrine controlled centrifugal Dentinal fluid flow. Stress, including oxidative stress, magnifies the body’s inflammatory response. Sugar can not only increase Oral bacterial acid Production but it can concurrently reduce the Tooth’s defenses through endocrine signaling. Saliva Production is the exocrine function of the salivary glands. The buffering capacity of saliva is critical to neutralizing the Oral environment. This minimizes the de-mineralization of Enamel and enhances its re-mineralization. K2, such as that found in fermented cheese, improves salivary buffering through its influence on calcium and inorganic phosphates secreted. Data collected from several selected primitive cultures on the cusp of civilization demonstrated the difference in Dental Health due to diet. The primitive diet group had few carious lesions compared to the group which consumed a civilized diet high in sugar and refined carbohydrates. The primitives were able to include the fat soluble vitamins, specifically K2, in their diet. More endocrine and neuroscience research is necessary to better understand how nutrition influences the Tooth’s defenses through the hypothalamus/parotid axis. It will also link Dental Caries to other Inflammation related degenerative Diseases such as diabetes.


The Perfect Teeth of Prehistoric Humans


Weston A. Price

An appropriate beginning for a study of why prehistoric humans had such good Dental Health is the work of Weston A. Price1. Dr. Price received his Dental degree from the University of Michigan in 1893. As a student, he was impressed by the excellent condition of the Teeth found in prehistoric skulls, but he was even more interested in their well formed facial features and Dental arches, which were not commonly seen in modern societies.

Early in his practice, he became interested in the effect of nutrition on Dental Health. To that end, in the early 1900s, he embarked on a ten-year global expedition with his wife to compare the Health and prevalence of Dental Disease in isolated ethnic groups who were still living on their primitive diets with matched groups of the same stocks who were routinely consuming “white man’s” food.

Price’s remarkable document Nutrition and Physical Degeneration1 presents in photographic detail many examples of the generational loss of well-formed facial anatomy and Healthy, well-placed Teeth found in skulls of prehistoric hunter-gatherers.

The isolated descendents who maintained the primitive dietary regimes of their prehistoric ancestors also maintained their ancestors’ excellent Dental Health. In contrast, descendents who switched to white man’s food not only had malformed Dental arches and Teeth rampant with Dental Caries but also had a number of other serious medical and physical problems.


 


Kaempferia galanga L Extract


Inhibitory POWER OF Toothpaste CONTAINS KENCUR (KAEMPFERIA GALANGA) TO THE GROWTH OF Streptococcus Mutans (SM) Bacteria


Background: Dental Caries is a Disease caused by the interaction between Microorganisms, diet, and Teeth (host). Streptococcus mutants is most common Microorganisms which has a role in the process Microorganisms whose role is Streptococcus mutants. Kencur (Kaempferia galanga) has bactericidal properties because it contains essential oils, flavonoids, polyphenols, and saponins that can Inhibit bacterial growth.

Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of kencur Extracts 20% in Toothpaste to Inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutants.
Methods: This was a laboratory experimental research with post-test control group design. The sample was divided into 2 groups, Toothpaste without kencur Extract as group A and a Toothpaste group containing kencur Extract. Replication is done 12 times from each group. Incubation was performed for 24 hours at 27 0 C. The results are measured with calipers and the data were analysed by Independent t-test.

Results:The results showed that the average of Toothpaste A Inhibitory zone was 2.95 mm and the Toothpaste containing kencur Extract was 18.1 mm. Independent test results obtained t-test significant value of 0.000 p<0.05 which means there are differences in the average zone of Inhibition significantly between groups kencur Extract Toothpaste and Toothpaste brands A.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that, although kencur Extracts Toothpaste has Inhibitory zone against the Bacteria Streptococcus mutants however, Toothpaste A has a larger Inhibition zone.


Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Wound Healing Effect of Kaempferia galanga L. Rhizome on the Chemical-Induced Oral Mucosal Ulcer in Wistar Rats


Introduction

Kaempferia galanga L. (K. galanga; local name kencur, Zingiberaceae) is a Plant commonly used as a kitchen spice, and empirically it is often used for medicinal purposes. This Plant has been shown to have an anti-inflammatory role, but no research has been found on its effect on Oral mucosal ulcer. This study aimed to investigate anti-inflammatory activity and wound healing effect of the ethanol Extract of K. galanga L. rhizome (EEKG) on the chemical-induced Oral mucosal ulcer in Wistar rats.

Methods

In this study, 35 rats were divided into 7 groups (normal, negative, triamcinolone acetonide, and 4 EEKG groups). Acetic acid 70% was used as the Oral mucosal ulcer inducer. Parameters observed were macroscopic and microscopic histopathological examinations.

Results

The results revealed that dose of 0.5% of the EEKG was effective in increasing the percent recovery of ulcer area and Inflammation sign scores. Meanwhile, doses of 0.5–2% of EEKG were effective in reducing the histopathological score. Interestingly, topical EEKG in our study was more effective compared with triamcinolone acetonide (the conventional therapy for Oral mucosal ulceration).


Kaempferia galanga L. Rhizome As a Potential Dental Plaque Preventive Agent


Dental Plaque Prevention can be achieved by Inhibition of Mouth Cavity microbes to built Biofilm. Kaempferia galanga rhizome has been known as a Potential antibacterial agent. This research aimed to reveal the potency of Kaempferia galanga Extract and essential oil as anti Plaque active agents, based on their in vitro Inhibitory activity against the planktonic growth and Biofilm of Streptococcus Mutans ATCC 21752. Kaempferia galanga Extract was obtained by defatting dried-pulverized samples in petroleum ether prior to immersion in 70% ethanol. The fresh rhizome was steam-hydro distilled for 6 h to yield the essential oil. antibacterial and anti Biofilm assays were measured by micro dilution technique on polystyrene 96-wells micro titer plates at 37°C. The percentage of Inhibition was calculated by comparing the absorbance of samples to the vehicle (control) measured by micro plate reader at 595 nm. Biofilms formed were first stained by 1% crystal violet. The above assays were performed in triplicates. This study revealed that both K. galanga rhizome essential oil and ethanolic Extract showed antibacterial and antibiofilm activity towards S. Mutans. The ethanol Extract showed MIC90 value at 0.091% w/v and MBC at 2.724% w/v for antibacterial activity; IC50 at 0.048 % w/v for anti Biofilm formation activity; and EC50 at 0.052%w/v for Biofilm degradation activity. Until the highest concentration tested (0.6%w/v), the MIC90 and MBC values of the essential oil were not revealed, but higher Biofilm Inhibitory activity i.e. IC50 at 0.025 % w/v; and EC50 at 0.034 %w/v were observed.


The Effect of Aromatic Ginger (Kaempferia galanga L.) Extract on Hydrophobicity of Streptococcus Mutans ATCC 25175 In Vitro


Dental Caries is one of the major prevalent Disease which inflict almost half of the world’s population. Streptococcus Mutans (S. Mutans) is the chief culprit of Dental Caries with 3 key virulence factors. One of the virulence factor of S. Mutans is the ability to adhere to Teeth surfaces which involves surface hydrophobicity. Aromatic ginger (Kaempferia galanga L.) is well known for its medicinal and culinary purposes which contains active components such as saponin, flavonoid, polyphenol and essential oil. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aromatic ginger Extract on the hydrophobicity of S. Mutans ATCC 25175. Hydrophobicity of S. Mutans ATCC 25175 was measured by using contact angle method. The bacterial suspension was treated with aromatic ginger Extract at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 40%, positive control (0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate) and negative control (aquadest). The mixtures were incubated for 20 hours at 37oC and centrifuged. The bacterial suspension was inoculated and deposited to the cellulose acetate membrane filter for 18 hours. Hydrophobicity of the S. Mutans was measured by drop shape analysis for determination of contact angle measurements. The contact angle was calculated using ImageJ software. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD Post-hoc tests were used to analyse the data obtained (p<0.05). The results obtained showed that aromatic ginger Extract decreased the hydrophobicity of S. Mutans ATCC 25175. All the treatment group of aromatic ginger Extract with 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations are effective in decreasing the hydrophobicity of S. Mutans ATCC 25175 and have the same effectiveness as CHX. Thus, 10% of aromatic ginger Extract is the recommended concentration to be used to reduce the hydrophobicity of S. Mutans.



Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.)(Lythraceae) leaves


Anticariogenic Activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.)


Dental Caries is the common infectious Diseases of the Oral Cavity and is caused
mainly by Oral streptococci. The present study was carried out to investigate the
Anticariogenic activity of methanol Extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.)
(Lythraceae) leaves. The Inhibitory efficacy of methanol Extract was tested
against 12 Oral isolates of Streptococcus Mutans by Agar well diffusion method.
The broth cultures of Bacteria were swabbed uniformly on sterile Brain heart
infusion agar plates and wells of 6mm were punched in the inoculated plates.
Standard antibiotic and different concentrations of Extract were transferred into
labeled wells. Zone of Inhibition was measured after incubation. The Extract
caused a concentration dependent Inhibition of cariogenic isolates. Inhibition
caused by standard antibiotic was higher than the methanol Extract. Preliminary
phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponins, glycosides, tannins
and terpenoids. The result of the present study reveals that methanol Extract
showed significant Inhibitory activity against cariogenic isolates. The Inhibitory
efficacy of Extract against cariogenic isolates could be due to the presence of
these metabolites. In suitable form, the leaves could be used to treat Dental
Caries.


 


Lippia sidoides


antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review


Dental Caries remains the most prevalent and costly Oral infectious Disease worldwide. Several methods have been employed to Prevent this Biofilm-dependent Disease, including the use of essential oils (EOs). In this systematic review, we discuss the antibacterial activity of EOs and their isolated constituents in view of a Potential applicability in novel Dental formulations. Seven databases were systematically searched for clinical trials, in situ, in vivo and in vitro studies addressing the topic published up to date. Most of the knowledge in the literature is based on in vitro studies assessing the Effects of EOs on Caries-related streptococci (mainly Streptococcus Mutans) and lactobacilli, and on a limited number of clinical trials. The most promising species with antibacterial Potential against cariogenic Bacteria are: Achillea ligustica, Baccharis dracunculifolia, Croton cajucara, Cryptomeria japonica, Coriandrum sativum, Eugenia caryophyllata, Lippia sidoides, Ocimum americanum, and Rosmarinus officinalis. In some cases, the major phytochemical compounds determine the biological properties of EOs. Menthol and eugenol were considered outstanding compounds demonstrating an antibacterial Potential. Only L. sidoides Mouthwash (1%) has shown clinical Antimicrobial Effects against Oral Pathogens thus far. This review suggests avenues for further non-clinical and clinical studies with the most promising EOs and their isolated constituents bioprospected worldwide.


A Systematic Review of the Potential Effects of Lippia sidoides on Dental Plaque and Periodontal Diseases


Lippia sidoides is a typical shrub from Brazil that has been used in traditional medicine. This is a systematic review on the effect of L. sidoides for controlling Dental Plaque, Gingivitis, and Periodontitis. A database search through May 2021 in Medline/PubMed, SCOPUS, BVS, and Web of Science identified 711 reports of which 17 met our inclusion criteria. Five randomized controlled trials and three animal studies were included that compared L. sidoides-based Products (Toothpaste, Mouthrinse, and gel) to cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine, and placebo Products. Among the human studies, a significant antiPlaque effect after treatment with L. sidoides-based Products was observed in three studies and an antiGingivitis effect in two studies, similar to chlorhexidine-based Products. One study found superior Dental Plaque reduction compared to cetylpyridinium chloride Mouthrinse. Only one study testing a L. sidoides gel found no antiPlaque effect. Among the animal studies, an L. sidoides Mouthrinse significantly reduced calculus in two studies, inflammatory infiltrate in one study, and Plaque Bacteria and Gingivitis in one study. An L. sidoides gel significantly reduced alveolar bone loss and inflammatory response in one study in which mice were submitted to ligature-induced Periodontal Disease. In general, L. sidoides-based Products were effective in reducing Dental Plaque and calculus formation, as well as clinical signs of Gingivitis. As most studies present methodological limitations, these results should be interpreted carefully. Further clinical trials with greater methodological accuracy and control of biases are necessary for the use of L. sidoides-based Products in humans to be viable in clinical practice.


Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against Oral Pathogens


Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease are associated with Oral patho-
gens. Several Plant derivatives have been evaluated with respect to
their Antimicrobial Effects against such pathogenic Microorganisms.
Lippia sidoides Cham (Verbenaceae), popularly known as “ Alecrim-
pimenta” is a typical shrub commonly found in the Northeast of
Brazil. Many Plant species belonging to the genus Lippia yield very
fragrant essential oils of Potential economic value which are used by
the industry for the commercial Production of perfumes, creams,
lotions, and deodorants. Since the leaves of L. sidoides are also
extensively used in popular medicine for the treatment of skin wounds
and cuts, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the
composition and Antimicrobial activity ofL. sidoides essential oil. The
essential oil was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-
MS. Twelve compounds were characterized, having as major con-
stituents thymol (56.7%) and carvacrol (16.7%). The Antimicrobial
activity of the oil and the major components was tested against
cariogenic bacterial species of the genus Streptococcus as well as
Candida albicans using the broth dilution and disk diffusion assays.
The essential oil and its major components thymol and carvacrol
exhibited Potent Antimicrobial activity against the organisms tested
with minimum Inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0
mg/mL. The most sensitive Microorganisms were C. albicans and
Streptococcus Mutans. The essential oil of L. sidoides and its major
components exert promising Antimicrobial Effects against Oral patho-
gens and suggest its likely usefulness to combat Oral microbial growth.


The efficacy of three formulations of Lippia sidoides Cham. essential oil in the reduction of salivary Streptococcus Mutans in children with Caries: A randomized, double-blind, controlled study


Essential oils of many Plants have been previously tested in the treatment of Oral Diseases and other infections. This study was a randomized, double-blind, in parallel with an active control study, which aimed to evaluate the efficacy of three formulations of the Lippia sidoides Cham. essential oil (LSO) in the reduction of salivary Streptococcus Mutans in children with Caries. 81 volunteers, aged 6–12 years, both genders, with Caries, were recruited to participate in this study, and randomly assigned to either one of five different groups. Each group received topical treatment with either 1.4% LSO Toothpaste, 1.4% LSO gel, 0.8% LSO Mouthwash, 1% chlorhexidine gel, or 0.12% chlorhexidine Mouthwash. A 5-ml volume of each gel was placed inside disposable trays, and applied for 1 min, every 24 h, for 5 consecutive days. The Mouthwash groups used 5-ml volume of a Mouthwash inside disposable syringes. In the Toothpaste group, children brushed their Teeth for 1 min, once a day for 5 days. Saliva was collected before and after treatment. MS colonies were counted, isolated and confirmed through biochemical tests. Differences in MS levels measured in different days within the same treatment group was only verified with LSO Toothpaste, chlorhexidine gel and chlorhexidine Mouthwash. Comparison between groups of LSO Mouthwash, Toothpaste and gel showed that the Toothpaste group expressed significantly lower MS levels than the Mouthwash and gel groups at day-30. Chlorhexidine significantly reduced MS levels after 5 days of treatment, but these levels returned to baseline in other periods of the study. LSO Toothpaste reduced MS levels after 5 days of treatment, and MS levels remained low and did not return to baseline during subsequent analysis. Hence, LSO Toothpaste demonstrated the most long-lasting MS reduction in saliva, whereas other LSO formulations did not effectively reduce MS levels in children with Dental Caries.


Clinical effect of a gel containing Lippia sidoides on Plaque and Gingivitis control


Objective: This parallel controlled clinical trial evaluated the effect of a gel containing Lippia sidoides essential oil on Plaque and Gingivitis control.

Methods: Thirty patients (n=30) were randomly selected and allocated into three groups: Lippia sidoides (LS, n=10), chlorhexidine (CLX, n=10) or placebo (control, n=10). Plaque and bleeding index were recorded at baseline and after three months. All volunteers were instructed to brush with the gel three times a day throughout the experiment period.

Results: There was a significant reduction on Plaque and Gingivitis in the test groups (P<.05), but no statistically significant difference was observed between them (P<.05).

Conclusion: A gel preparation containing 10% Lippia sidoides essential oil was an efficient herbal antiPlaque and antiGingivitis agent.


Effect of Lippia sidoides in Mouthrinses on de novo Plaque formation: A double-blind clinical study in humans


Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiPlaque effect of Lippia sidoides (LS) by in vivo investigation.
Materials and Methods: Ten Healthy volunteers participated in a cross-over, double-blind clinical study, using a 3-day partial-Mouth Plaque accumulation model. The participants abolished any method of mechanical Oral hygiene and they were randomly assigned initially to use just the following Mouth rinses: Distilled water (negative control group), 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (positive control group) or 10% LS (test group). The Plaque index was recorded in the six anterior upper Teeth at the end of the trial and the one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were used to estimate the difference among groups.
Results: The clinical results did show statistically significant difference among three groups (P < 0.05), favoring the positive control group and test group, however, no difference in efficacy was found between them (P > 0.05).
Conclusions: The Mouth rinses containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate and 10% LS were equally able to Inhibit Plaque re-growth.


The anti-adherence effect of Lippia sidoides Cham. Extract against Microorganisms of Dental Biofilm


ABSTRACT: Most illnesses affecting the Oral Cavity are proven to have infectious origin. Several
categories of chemical agents have been used in the chemical control of Dental Biofilm through

strategies that aim at reducing bacterial adhesion and Inhibiting the growth and the proliferation

of Microorganisms on the Tooth surface. The use of Plants in folk medicine and in Dentistry, as

well as the spread of successful cases, has led to scientific exploration, resulting in chemical-

pharmacological knowledge of thousands of Plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the

anti-adherence activity of
Lippia sidoides Cham., comparing the results with those of 0.12%
chlorhexidine by means of an
in vitro simulation of Dental Biofilm. The studied bacterial strains
were
Streptococcus Mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus casei, main responsible
for the Biofilm adherence. The studied Extract was effective in Inhibiting the adherence of

Streptococcus Mutans
up to a concentration of 1:16, compared to Chlorhexidine. Lippia sidoides
Cham Extract showed anti-adherence effect on the major Microorganisms responsible for Dental

Biofilm consolidation.



macelignan


Anticariogenic activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) against Streptococcus Mutans


The occurrence of Dental Caries is mainly associated with Oral Pathogens, especially cariogenic Streptococcus Mutans. Preliminary antibacterial screening revealed that the Extract of Myristica fragrans, widely cultivated for the spice and flavor of foods, possessed strong Inhibitory activity against S. Mutans. The Anticariogenic compound was successfully isolated from the methanol Extract of M. fragrans by repeated silica gel chromatography, and its structure was identified as macelignan by instrumental analysis using 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and EI-MS. The minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of macelignan against S. Mutans was 3.9 μg/ml, which was much lower than those of other Natural Anticariogenic agents such as 15.6 μg/ml of sanguinarine, 250 μg/ml of eucalyptol, 500 μg/ml of menthol and thymol, and 1000 μg/ml of methyl salicylate. Macelignan also possessed preferential activity against other Oral Microorganisms such as Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in the MIC range of 2–31.3 μg/ml. In particular, the bactericidal test showed that macelignan, at a concentration of 20 μg/ml, completely inactivated S. Mutans in 1 min. The specific activity and fast-effectiveness of macelignan against Oral Bacteria strongly suggest that it could be employed as a Natural antibacterial agent in functional foods or Oral care Products.


In vitro anti-Biofilm activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans Houtt. against Oral primary colonizer Bacteria


In early Dental Plaque formation, Oral primary colonizers such as Streptococcus Mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus are initially attached to the pellicle-coated Tooth surface to form a Biofilm. The study aimed to determine the efficacy of macelignan, isolated from nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), in removing each single Oral primary Biofilm in vitro on a polystyrene 96-well microtiter plate. Four Biofilm growth phases (4, 12, 20 and 24 h) were evaluated in this study after treatment with macelignan at various concentrations (0.2, 2 and 10 µg/mL) and exposure times (5, 10 and 30 min). Anti-Biofilm activity of macelignan was measured as the percentage of the remaining Biofilm absorbance after macelignan treatment in comparison with the untreated control. At 24 h of Biofilm growth, S. Mutans, A. viscosus and S. sanguis Biofilms were reduced by up to 30%, 30% and 38%, respectively, after treatment with 10 µg/mL macelignan for 5 min. Increasing the treatment time to 30 min resulted in a reduction of more than 50% of each of the single primary Biofilms. The results indicate that macelignan is a Potent Natural anti-Biofilm agent against Oral primary colonizers.


Multiple biological properties of macelignan and its pharmacological implications


Macelignan found in the nutmeg mace of Myristica fragrans obtains increasing attention as a new avenue in treating various Diseases. Macelignan has been shown to possess a spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, and hepatoprotective activities; recently, it has also been shown to have neuroprotective activities. This review summarizes the current research on the biological Effects of macelignan derived from M. fragrans, with emphasis on the importance in understanding and treating complex Diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer’s Disease.


Achievable therapeutic Effects of myristica fragrans (NUTMEG) on Periodontitis a short review


Myristica fragrans, commonly known as nutmeg has been used as a spice and flavouring agent in the food industry and domestic use since ages. It has also shown to have many medicinal properties due to the complex structural molecules present in it. Its role however in Periodontal Diseases has not been reported to the best of our knowledge. Periodontitis is an inflammatory Disease affecting periodontium-the supporting structures of the Teeth. It is caused by alterations in the Oral microbial flora to pathogenic Microorganisms followed by a cascade of events that cause Inflammation, oxidation and collagenolysis leading to the destruction of periodontium. This review aims to relate the possible role of Myristica fragrans in the adjunctive treatment of Periodontitis.



magnolol


Antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol isolated from Magnolia officinalis


The Antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol, the main constituents of Magnolia officinalis was investigated. The Antimicrobial activity was assayed by the agar dilution method using brain heart infusion medium and the minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined for each compound using a twofold serial dilution assay. The results showed that honokiol and magnolol have a marked Antimicrobial effect (MIC = 25 µg/mL) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas Gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, but did not show Antimicrobial activity (MIC ≥ 100 µg/mL) for Shigella flexneii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results indicate that honokiol and magnolol, although less Potent than tetracycline, show a significant Antimicrobial activity for Periodontal Pathogens. Hence we suggest that honokiol and magnolol might have the Potential to be an adjunct in the treatment of Periodontitis.


Antimicrobial Effects of four medicinal Plants on Dental Plaque


Dental Caries is a common Disease in human population which has a multifactorial etiology. A major cause of the Disease is believed to be commensal Bacteria which exist in Dental Plaque, particularly Oral Streptococci. Our study is aimed at investigating the Effects of aqueous, alcoholic and etheric, Extracts as well as essence of four medicinal Plants (Thymus vulgaris L., Melissa officinalis L., Rhus corriaria L. and Magnolia grandiflora L.) on Streptococcus Mutans L. (ATCC-1 27607) and Streptococcus sanguis L. (PTCC-1449). None of the aqueous Extracts had an effect on either S. Mutans or S. sanguis. However, ethanol Extract of M. officinalis had a minimal Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 310 µg/ml on both Pathogens. R. corriaria had a MIC and a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 250 µg/ml on S. Mutans and S. sanguis. Plant essence demonstrated superior effect than aqueous and alcoholic Extracts. M. grandiflora had a MIC of 1/5200 ml and MBC of 1/3200 ml on S. Mutans. The MIC and MBC was 1/5200 ml and 1/2400 ml respectively on S. sanguis. T. vulgaris had a MIC of 1/2000 ml and a MBC of 1/1200 ml on S. Mutans. The Plant essence Inhibited S. sanguis up to 1/400 ml but no MB effect on S. sanguis. Essence of M. officinalis had a MI effect on both S. Mutans and S. sanguis up to 1/1200 dilution but no MB effect on the Pathogens.


Dental Plaque regrowth studies to evaluate chewing Gum formulations incorporating magnolia bark Extract


The Plaque Inhibiting properties of magnolia bark Extract (MBE) were assessed in a volunteer trial following the consumption of various sugar-free chewing Gum formulations over a period of 4-days. Paired t-tests demonstrated significant (p < 0.15) differences between the placebo and a Gum containing MBE (0.4%) plus lauramide arginine ethyl ester (LAE) (0.5%) with respect to% Plaque coverage (36.3% vs 34.0%) and area of Plaque fluorescence (109.4 mm2 vs 75.2 mm2). These findings were supported by microbiological counts of total salivary Bacteria (7.77 log10 cfu/ml vs 7.45 log10 cfu/ml) as well as Streptococcus spp. (6.76 log10 cfu/ml vs 6.29 log10 cfu/ml). MBE (0.4%) + LAE (0.5%) delivered by chewing Gum had a moderate Inhibitory effect on Plaque formation and salivary Bacteria. Limiting the formation of Dental Plaque and salivary Bacteria, specifically Oral streptococci, could contribute towards an improvement in Oral Health with respect to Gum Disease and Caries.



Marticariarecutitia L (German chamomile)


Herbal Medications in Endodontics and Its Application—A Review of Literature


Abstract: Herbal Products are gaining popularity in Dental and medical practice nowadays due to
their biocompatibility, higher Antimicrobial activity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Herbal medicine has experienced rapid growth in recent years due to its beneficial properties, ease
of availability, and lack of side Effects. As pathogenic Bacteria become more resistant to antibiotics
and chemotherapeutic agents, researchers are becoming more interested in alternative Products
and treatment choices for Oral Diseases. As a result, Natural phytochemicals separated from Plants
and utilized in traditional medicine are suitable substitutes for synthetic chemicals. The aim of this
review article is to list and understand several herbal alternatives that are currently accessible for
use as efficient endodontic medicaments. The herbal Products used in endodontics have several
advantages, including safety, ease of use, increased storability, low cost, and a lack of microbial
tolerance. However, preclinical and clinical testing and interactions with other materials and adverse
Effects are required for these herbal Products.


The effect of German chamomile (Marticaria recutita L.) Extract and tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia L.) oil used as irrigants on removal of smear layer: a scanning electron microscopy study


Aim To compare the Cleaning effectiveness of chamomile hydroalcoholic Extract and tea tree oil to 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution as an intracanal irrigant for the removal of the smear layer.

Methodology Forty Extracted, single-Rooted, mature, permanent, human Teeth were allocated at random into one of three experimental groups of ten Teeth and two control groups of five Teeth. For each Tooth, the Pulp chamber was accessed and the canal prepared using K-type files and Gates-Glidden burs, using a step-back technique; the apical stop was prepared to a size 30. Each canal was subsequently irrigated with one of the following solutions: distilled water (as a negative control), 2.5% NaOCl + 17% ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (as a positive control), chamomile or tea tree oil or 2.5% NaOCl. Each Tooth was split longitudinally and prepared for examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The quantity of smear layer remaining on the three levels of each canal (coronal, middle and apical) was examined using magnifications of 2000 and 5000×. The data were analysed using nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U-tests.

Results The most effective removal of smear layer occurred with the use of NaOCl with a final rinse of 17% EDTA (negative control) followed by the use of a chamomile Extract. Chamomile Extract was found to be significantly more effective than distilled water and tea tree oil (P < 0.008).The use of a 2.5% NaOCl solution alone, without EDTA and that of tea tree oil, was found to have only minor Effects. There was no statistical difference between distilled water, 2.5% NaOCl and tea tree oil.

Conclusions The efficacy of chamomile to remove smear layer was superior to NaOCl alone but less than NaOCl combined with EDTA.


effect of german chamomile Mouthwash on Dental Plaque and Gingival Inflammation


Dental Plaque is a well known etiologic factor for Gingivitis. Recently, herbal Extracts are a matter of scientific interest to Inhibit Plaque accumulation on Teeth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Effects of German Chamomile [GC] Mouth wash on Plaque and Gingival indices. Twenty five Gingivitis patients [15 female and 10 male, mean age 27 +/- 7.76 years] participated in this controlled, double blind cross-over study. The subjects used either GC or a control rinse for 2 min twice a day during a 4 weeks period. The other Mouth rinse was used after a wash-out period of 4 weeks in the same way. The Plaque and Gingival indices were recorded at baseline and after each experimental or wash-out period. Furthermore, stain indices for intensity and extend were recorded to evaluate the Tooth staining Effects of the Mouthrinses. The mean reduction in Plaque and Gingival scores were determined by using the test or control Mouthwash and statistically analyzed by paired sample t- test. The stain intensity and extend in each period of the study were also analyzed by the two-way ANOVA. The GC Mouthwash lowered both Plaque and Gingival scores significantly in comparison to the control rinse [p?0.001], whilst there was no significant difference in stain intensity or extend between the baseline and after each period of the study. There was also no report of any adverse reactions during the use of Mouth rinses in this the study. Using GC Mouthwash appears to offer benefit in Plaque and Gingival reduction without any significant adverse Effects on Tooth staining.



Matricaria chamomilla L.


Clinical efficacy of a 1% Matricaria chamomile L. Mouthwash and 0.12% chlorhexidine for Gingivitis control in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances


This pilot study evaluated the clinical efficacy of a Mouthwash containing 1% Matricaria chamomilla L. (MTC) Extract in reducing Gingival Inflammation and Plaque formation in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled a total of 30 males and females (age, 10-40 years) with fixed orthodontic appliances and a minimum of 20 Natural Teeth. The participants were allocated to three groups (n = 10 each) and asked to rinse with 15 mL of a placebo, 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX), or 1% MTC Mouthwash, immediately after brushing for 1 min, in the morning and evening, for 15 days. Data (mean ± SD) on visible Plaque index (VPI) and Gin